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Everything covalent

In a covalent bond an electron occupies the space between the two atoms nuclei its
shared.
Negative electrons are attracted to positive nucleus, overcomes repulsion
between two positive nucleus.
Covalent bonds are directional.
Lone pairs > outer shell electron pair not involved in chemical bonding only the central…

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2.1 2.2
9 0

i. Small difference in electro negativity; PH3
Contains almost pure covalent bonds
N H

3.0 2.2
4 0

ii. Larger difference in covalent bonds; NH3
N is more electro negative than H
so its a POLAR COVALENT BOND.
Na Cl

0.9 3.1
3 6

iii. Very…

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Ice is less dense than water because when frozen the water
molecules spread apart to form an open lattice in order to
maximise the number of hydrogen bonds.
iii. Van de Waals' forces
In a molecule electrons are constantly moving
At any one time the electrons may become unevenly distributed…

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