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research methods
issues with confidentiality
participants must be anonymous. the researcher should not use the participants real
name or share any personal information including photos of the participant when
referring to a particular participant. instead pseudonyms, letters or numbers should
be used instead of the participants real name.
issues with consent
participants should be able to give their fully informed consent before taking part in
an investigation. they should know what the experiment is about (hypothesis) although
this may invalidate the results of the experiment due to demand characteristics.
prior general consent involves the patient being generally informed about
experiments and what they involve in general. this means there is less demand
characteristics but it still means that the participant isn't fully informed about the
actual investigation.
Presumptive consent is informing the participants fully in one group about the
experiment but not using this group in the study. instead a second group is used in the
study but without being informed about any aspect of the study or being given the
chance to give their consent as the investigator assumes that as the first group gave
consent when informed about the investigation then the second group will too.
however this is still not gaining fully informed consent from the actual participants.
issues with deception
participants may be misinformed about aspects of the experiment. active deception is
lying about the experiment and passive deception is telling the participant about the
experiment but missing out some vital information. if participants are lied to then
they don't know the aim of the study properly so they can't give their fully informed
consent either. however, deception removes demand characteristics so the results are
issues with the right to withdraw
participants should be told they can leave the experiment at any time. they should be
debriefed when they leave and asked if they are still happy if the investigator uses
their data. if they aren't happy for the investigator to use their data them their data
should be removed.

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