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Describe it:

Informed consent is where participants agree to take part in an experiment in full knowledge of all
aspects of the experiment which may affect their willingness to take part, including the aims and
expected results.

Why it's important to uphold:

This is an important ethical…

Page 2

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Was the breach justified:

Milgram dealt with his lack of informed consent by thoroughly debriefing his participants after the
experiment. It is questionable as to whether this was enough in light of the fact some participants
experienced extreme reactions to the pressure exerted on them, however the majority of

Page 3

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2) Protection of Participants
Another ethical issue which often arises is the protection of participants.

Describe it:

Ethical guidelines state that investigators have a responsibility to protect participants from
physical and psychological harm, including stress, embarrassment, and humiliation. Normally
the risk of harm should be no greater than that experienced…

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Although neither Milgram nor Zimbardo intentionally put their participants at risk, it could be
seen that the psychological harm experienced was, in a way, necessary. This is because we're
dealing with dubious situations, in which we can only find out what to expect by letting it
happen. For example, some…


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