Essay Institutional Explanations of Aggression 24 marks

the title of the essay is

Outline and Evaluate institutional explanations of aggression

not sure if its completly 24 marks, but its near that figure.

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green represents AO2 STRENGTHS

red represents AO2 WEAKNESS

ignore where it says 'viewed in abu ghraib'

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  • Created by: Fahima
  • Created on: 11-03-13 14:14
Preview of Essay Institutional Explanations of Aggression 24 marks

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Outline and Evaluate Institutional Explanations of
The deprivation model of institutional aggression proposes that
aggression occurs due to internal factors of the prison. It basically
suggests that the institution causes aggression in the institution.
This model is also known as situational model.
Sykes suggested that inmates experience deprivations during their
sentence in prison and these deprivations lead to frustrations and
therefore aggressive behaviour was more likely to occur. He identified 5
types of deprivations:
Deprivation of Liberty ­ the inmate has to stay confined within the
institution and cannot move from one point to another unless he's told
to do so. This is a way of telling the inmates that their right to live
freely has been taken from them, and they can no longer be trusted ->
they cannot vote and they are not a member of the society. This
confinement leads the inmate to become frustrated about the
control exerted on him and this leads to aggression.
Deprivation of Autonomy ­ the inmate becomes subjected to many rules
and commands that control his behaviour in every minor detail and thus
they cannot have independence. Therefore, they realise that they have
no power and cannot decide for themselves on daily basis tasks, as they
follow rules. These feelings of helplessness threaten his self-image
that leads to frustration and aggression.
Deprivation of goods & services ­ inmates have to live with only a chair
for furniture and do not own anything else. They have the basic goods
to live every day e.g. food, water, and clothing. However, they are
prevented from appreciating the pleasures they were used to e.g.
smoking a cigarette. The basic needs do not provide stimulation and
therefore it can lead to boredom and aggression.
Deprivation of heterosexual relationships ­ inmates have no conjugal
visits and only briefly allowed to see wife/girlfriend/mistress, through a
glass window and talk on the phone under observation of a guard. They
may lose sense of self and identity without female companionship
and their male status may be questioned and their self-image
questioned. As this happens, this will lead to extreme frustration
which then leads to aggression.
Deprivation of security ­ inmates imprisoned with other men who are
violent and aggressive. Inmates realise that at some point they will be
tested by inmates ­ question their security. In this type of situation,
Fahima Aziz

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Outline and Evaluate Institutional Explanations of
anxiety is very common, and so they use aggression as a way to
defend themselves.
Strength of the deprivation model is that there is a lot of research
support. For example, Richards examined assaults in 900 US prisons
and found that inmates' programmes which identified areas of the
institution actually decreased levels of aggression.…read more

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Outline and Evaluate Institutional Explanations of
The Importation model states that inmates who enter prison bring their
own attitudes, values and experiences. These individual characteristics
make them more likely to engage in violence.
Also, other psychological and personal factors can play a role:
Alcohol addiction
Previous employment record
Levels of education
Previous criminal history
Younger inmates find it harder to adapt to prison life compared to older
inmates.…read more

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Outline and Evaluate Institutional Explanations of
model fails to explain the cause of these individual characteristics ­
could be result of biological and physiological causes.
The importation model can also be criticised for lacking practical
applications. This is because it has little use and application to real life
as it is based on individual characteristics. As a result, to reduce
institutional aggression, it would involve changing individual
personality. Therefore, it fails to provide suggestions for how to
reduce and manage institutional aggression.…read more


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