ENZYMESVs1

ENzymes

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What are enzymes?
1. All enzymes are globular proteins spherical in shape
2. Control biochemical reactions in cells
3. They have the suffix ase
4. Intracellular enzymes are found inside the cell
5. Extracellular enzymes act outside the cell for example digestive
enzymes
6. Enzymes are catalysts speed up che
mical reactions
Reduce activation energy required to start a reaction between molecules
Substrates (reactants) are converted into products
Reaction may not take place in absence of enzymes (each enzyme has a
specific catalytic action)
Enzymes catalyse a reaction at max rate at an optimum state
7. Lock and key theory
Only one substrate (key) can fit into the enzyme's active site (lock)
Both structures have a unique shape
8. Induced fit theory
Substrate binds to the enzyme's active site

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The shape of the active site changes and moves the substrate closer to
the enzyme
Amino acid
s are moulded into a precise form
Enzyme wraps around substrate to distort it
This lowers the activation energy
An enzymesubstrate complex forms fast reaction
9.…read more

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Never gonna say goodbye Never gonna tell a lie and hurt you Never gonna give you up Never gonna let you down Never
gonna run around and desert you Never gonna make you cry Never gonna say goodbye Never gonna tell a lie and hurt you Never gonna give you up Never gonna let you down Never gonna run around and desert you Never gonna make you cry Never gonna say goodbye Never gonna tell a lie and hurt you.
10.…read more

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Adding mo re
substrate won't yield more product, as no more active
sites are available…read more

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Enzyme Inhibitors
Competetive inhibitors
similar shape to substrate molecule
Bond to the active site of the enzyme but do not react or
alter the chemical struture of the enzyme
High concentration of competetive inhibitors causes a
lower rate of reaction
NonCompetetive inhibitiors
Do not bind to the enzyme's active site
Due to this the enzyme's active site alters so it can
no longer bind to the substrate
Do not compete with substrate molecules as they have a
different shape to them so therefore cannot bind…read more

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ES complexes
At 042°C rate of reaction is proportional to temp
Enzymes have optimum temp. For their action (usually 37°C in humans)
Above 42°C, enzyme is denatured due to heavy vibration that breaks H
bonds
Shape is changed active site can't be used anymore
14.…read more

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