English Language - Language and Power Definitions.

HideShow resource information
Preview of English Language - Language and Power Definitions.

First 437 words of the document:

Language and Power Definitions.
Political Power ­ Power held by those with the backing of the law.
Personal Power ­ Power held by individuals as a result of their roles in organisations.
Social Group Power ­ Power held as a result of being a member of a dominant social
Instrumental Power ­ Power used to maintain and enforce authority.
Influential Power ­ Power used to influence or persuade others.
Power in Discourse ­ The focus on the social and ideological reason behind the
enactment of power.
Ideology ­ A set of belief systems, attitudes or a world view held by an individual or
Epistemic Modality ­ Constructions that express degrees of possibility, probability or
Deontic Modality ­ Constructions that express degrees of necessity and obligation.
Synthetic Personalisation ­ The way in which advertising and other forms of
communication use personalised language such as the second person pronoun "you" to
construct a relationship between the text producer and the receiver.
Members' Resources ­ The vast amount of background knowledge and information that
readers use in order to interpret texts and which may be explicitly drawn upon by text
Power Asymmetry ­ A marked difference in the power status of individuals involved in
Unequal Encounter ­ An alternative term for asymmetrical, highlighting the power one
speaker has over another.
Powerful Participant ­ A speaker with a higher status in a given context, who is
therefore able to impose a degree of power.
Less Powerful Participants ­ Those with less status in a given context, who are subject
to constraints imposed by more powerful participants.
Constraints ­ Ways in which powerful participants may block or control the
contributions of less powerful participants, for example through controlling content or
Formulation ­ The rewording of another's contribution by a powerful participant to
impose a certain meaning or understanding.
Face ­ A person's self-esteem or emotional needs.
Positive Face ­ The need to feel wanted, liked and appreciated.
Negative Face ­ The need to have freedom of thought and action and not feel imposed
Face Threatening Act ­ A communicative act that threatens someone's
positive/negative face needs.
Positive and Negative Politeness Strategies ­ Redressive strategies that a speaker might
use to mitigate or avoid face-threatening acts.
Small Talk ­ Talk that is primarily interactional in orientation and is geared towards
establishing relationships.
Repressive Discourse Strategy ­ A more indirect way of exercising power and control
through conversational constraints.

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

Oppressive Discourse Strategy ­ Linguistic Behaviour that is open in its exercising of
power and control.…read more


No comments have yet been made

Similar English Language resources:

See all English Language resources »See all resources »