First 437 words of the document:
Language and Power Definitions.
Political Power Power held by those with the backing of the law.
Personal Power Power held by individuals as a result of their roles in organisations.
Social Group Power Power held as a result of being a member of a dominant social
Instrumental Power Power used to maintain and enforce authority.
Influential Power Power used to influence or persuade others.
Power in Discourse The focus on the social and ideological reason behind the
enactment of power.
Ideology A set of belief systems, attitudes or a world view held by an individual or
Epistemic Modality Constructions that express degrees of possibility, probability or
Deontic Modality Constructions that express degrees of necessity and obligation.
Synthetic Personalisation The way in which advertising and other forms of
communication use personalised language such as the second person pronoun "you" to
construct a relationship between the text producer and the receiver.
Members' Resources The vast amount of background knowledge and information that
readers use in order to interpret texts and which may be explicitly drawn upon by text
Power Asymmetry A marked difference in the power status of individuals involved in
Unequal Encounter An alternative term for asymmetrical, highlighting the power one
speaker has over another.
Powerful Participant A speaker with a higher status in a given context, who is
therefore able to impose a degree of power.
Less Powerful Participants Those with less status in a given context, who are subject
to constraints imposed by more powerful participants.
Constraints Ways in which powerful participants may block or control the
contributions of less powerful participants, for example through controlling content or
Formulation The rewording of another's contribution by a powerful participant to
impose a certain meaning or understanding.
Face A person's self-esteem or emotional needs.
Positive Face The need to feel wanted, liked and appreciated.
Negative Face The need to have freedom of thought and action and not feel imposed
Face Threatening Act A communicative act that threatens someone's
positive/negative face needs.
Positive and Negative Politeness Strategies Redressive strategies that a speaker might
use to mitigate or avoid face-threatening acts.
Small Talk Talk that is primarily interactional in orientation and is geared towards
Repressive Discourse Strategy A more indirect way of exercising power and control
through conversational constraints.