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Address forms
An imbalance in address form often indicates a
difference in status.
For instance, you might address your boss/teacher
more formally, e.g. `sir` or `miss', but they will call you by
your first name.
A person in a superior position may allow you to call
them by a more symmetrical form of address but this
has to be initiated by them.
Younger family members address older family
members by `mum' or `granddad', whilst this rarely
occurs in reverse (`son' can often be used but never
`daughter').…read more

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What types of power are there?
Political ­ that held by politicians, the police and those
working in law courts.
Personal ­ power held as a result of their occupation or
Social group ­ power held as a result of social variables
such as class, gender and age.…read more

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What is instrumental power?
This is to make people do things or make things happen. Example of
these can be legal or official documents and rules. Features of these
texts are:
Formal Register (Making the voice seem distant rather than
Specialist & Latinate Lexis.
Imperative sentences (You must do this ...).
Modal Auxiliaries; e.g. must, will, can (Express certainty and
confidence in telling you what you can or cannot do).
Conditionals (if...).
Declarative sentences.
Faceless language; e.g. impersonal constructions, official job titles.
Avoidance of ambiguity.
Mitigation (When a writer tries to sound polite or "soften" the
bluntness of a statement).…read more

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What is influential power?
This is the power to make us believe or support
something. These are generally found in political or media
texts. Features of this are:
Embedded assumptions (You will want to read this ...).
Metaphoric references ("A healthy economy", obviously
economies don't get sick!).
Assertions (Opinions stated as facts).
Loaded language (Words chosen to evoke strong
negative/positive connotations) e.g. ethnic cleansing vs
mass murder.…read more

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Instrumental vs. Influential
Instrumental Power Influential Power
Influential power is not imposed
Instrumental power is explicit but influences people to do a
power imposed by the certain action (e.g. vote for a
state/authoritative figure e.g. political party or wear certain
education, law, businesses, clothes).
It can often be found in
Flouting instrumental power can advertisements, politics and
media as well as modern culture
result in some form of and social protocol.
punishment, which (depending on
the context) could be anything People have the choice whether
from being reprimanded to being to conform as there are no fixed
arrested. sanctions if they choose to
"disobey". However, people can
feel pressured to accept as not
complying may lead to negative
social or psychological effects.…read more

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Paul Dutton

An informative and thorough presentation looking at language and power.  Very detailed.


Great. If this doesn't get me through the exam, I don't know what will. Thankyou.


Do you have to download it first


love you

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