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e) Describe how energy is transferred through ecosystems.

A food chain shows how energy is transferred from one living organism to another.

Joining food chains together to create a food web can show how energy flows through the
whole ecosystem.

The level at which an organism feeds is called its…

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h) Explain how human activities can manipulate the flow of energy through ecosystems.

Productivity: the rate at which plants convert light energy into chemical potential energy.

Gross Primary Productivity: the total quantity of energy transferred by plants from sunlight into
plant tissue.

Net Primary Productivity: the energy that is left…

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Antibiotics ­ prevents energy losses to pathogens and parasites.

Zero grazing ­ animals waste energy walking around and keeping body temperature stable;
by reducing movement, supplying food to them and keeping the environmental temperature
constant, more energy can be allocated to muscle production.


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