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Slide 1

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Energy Transfer through
Ecosystems…read more

Slide 2

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Food Chains
· Food chains show the feeding relationships
between living things, showing what eats
what in a particular habitat.
· The arrows point in the direction in which the
energy flows.…read more

Slide 3

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Energy Transfer
· Energy is transferred along food chains from one stage to the
next. But the amount of available energy decreases from one
organism to the next.
· Some of the energy is used for growth and producing
offspring. This energy is available to the next stage, but most
of the available energy isn't, because it is:
> released by respiration, where energy is used for
movement and other life processes, and is eventually lost as
heat to the surroundings
> lost in waste materials, such as faeces
· All of the energy used in these ways returns to the
environment, and is not available to the next stage.…read more

Slide 4

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Pyramids of biomass
· Biomass is the mass of living material
at a stage in a food chain.
· The biomass goes down as you go from
one stage to the next, just like the
amount of energy.
· A pyramid of biomass is a chart, drawn
to scale, showing the biomass at each
stage in a food chain.
· The bars become narrower as you
reach the top.
· This pyramid of biomass is for the food
oak tree caterpillar blue tit
sparrowhawk…read more

Slide 5

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Efficiency of food production
· The efficiency of food production can be improved by reducing the
amount of energy lost to the surroundings. This can be done by:
> preventing animals moving around too much
> keeping their surroundings warm
· Mammals and birds maintain a constant body temperature using
energy released by respiration. Therefore, their energy losses are
higher than cold-blooded animals.
· Some animals are kept in immoral
conditions because of this, for
example battery chickens.…read more

Slide 6

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Carbon Cycle…read more


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