Energy sources and security

Unit 3 A2 edexcel geography topic 1 energy security 

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UNIT 3 -Topic 1 ­ Energy Classification
1. Geothermal: in geologically active areas, heat from the earth can fuel power plants
and heat water. Elsewhere, the grounds constant temperature can be used to heat
and cool buildings
2. Nuclear: no other source of energy creates such heated discussion as nuclear power.
The main concerns are: - power plant accidents, which could release radiation into
the air, land and sea; - radioactive waste storage/disposal; - rouge state or terrorist
use of nuclear fuel for weapons; - the possible increase in certain types of cancer
near nuclear plants
3. Tidal/wave: the movement of the sea can be used to generate electricity using tidal
barrages or wave energy
4. Solar: photovoltaic panels convert the sun's radiation into electricity. Thermal panels
convert solar radiation into heat (eg. Heating water)
5. Coal: coal is the most polluting source of energy. Opencast mining can scar the
landscape of large areas and require costly remedial wars. Burning coal is the major
cause of climate change. Environmental legislation in a number of countries has
required coal burning power plants to reduce pollutants such as nitrogen oxides and
sulphur dioxide by installing building-size scrubbers and catalytic units. However, at
present, all the carbon dioxide produced is still released into the atmosphere. This
amounts to nearly two billion tons each year from US coal power plants alone
6. Oil: where large oil fields occur the infrastructure can cover a very large area. Oil
spills at production sites and along pipeline and tanker routes are major hazards.
Oil-fired power stations create green-house gases although significantly less than
coal-fired power stations
7. Tidal: there is a concern that tidal barrages may have a significant impact on the
regional environment, as they are often in estuaries of high ecological value
8. Waves: the main environmental concerns are noise pollution and visual impact
9. Hydro-electric: although HEP is generally seen as a clean form of energy, it is not
without its problems which include: 1. Large dams and power plans can have a huge
negative impact on the environment 2. The abstraction of the river for aquatic life 3.
Deterioration in water quality 4. Large areas of land may be flooded 5. Submerging
large forests without prior clearance can release significant quantities of methane (a
greenhouse gas)
10. Biomass: plant material can be burned or fermented, and used to generate
electricity or heat. The carbon dioxide released is the same amount as was removed
from the atmosphere during the plant's lifetime
11. Wind: wind turbines can be used to generate electricity, for the national grid or for
isolated communities
12. Natural gas: composed mainly of methane, is the least polluting of all of the fossil
fuels. However, it can create major environmental problems when it is flared off as a
waste product at oilfields. This occurs when there is no infrastructure present to pipe
the gas to customers
Renewable energies: wind, biomass, geothermal, solar, tidal, wave & HEP
Non-renewables: coal, oil & natural gas
Recyclable: nuclear energy

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Energy isn't fairly distributed around the whole world as many countries depend on others
for a constant supply of energy. Non-renewable resources aren't distributed equally, for
example the Middle East region controls most of the oil, natural gas and uranium reserves.
Australia also owns high levels of uranium and coal. For instance northern, Western Europe
don't own any kind of non-renewable energy and therefore rely on other countries.
Renewable resources such as solar and wind energy are more equally spread out throughout
the whole world.…read more

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Malta into a completely green country, although not all homes are
prepared for it and the government lacks some means.
Growth in demand : - reasons
Current energy resources: - location , - supply and ­ output
Domestic supply: - What? ­ Where? ­ How?
Import: - Who? ­ Where? THE FUTURE
Government action
Q.…read more

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Q. what are the environmental issues associated with energy exploration and
extraction of resources in the Arctic?
The Arctic is a natural and untouched area which is habitat for many species in the world and
the Eskimo tribe lives there. The Arctic regulates the world temperature decreasing it,
therefore it's a vital area to the whole world and very valuable.…read more

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Q. countries that solely rely on it for gas supply.
Bosnia-Herzegovina, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova and Slovakia
Q. earnings:
In 2012 its net income was US$38.7 billion and its revenue US$ 153 billion
Q.…read more

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The role of Energy TNC's
TNC: Exxon-Mobile
Q. country headquarters.
Irving, Texas, United States
Q. areas of operation:
1. East Cammeron fields
2. South Timballer fields
3. South Pass fields off coast of Louisiana
4. Viocca Knoll fields
5. Rabbit Island fields
6. Main Pass
Q. share of market / turnover
The shares are sold in the stock market with the company revenue being of 453.123 billion in
Q.…read more

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Is there enough energy?
2008 (million barrels/day)
Country Oil Consumption
USA 20.7
China 7.2
Japan 5.2
Russia 2.9
Germany 2.7
India 2.6
Brazil 2.2
UK 1.8
By 2010, global oil consumption is predicted to average 89.2 million barrels a day.…read more

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Canada 179.2
Iran 136.3
Iraq 115.0
Kuwait 99.0
UAE 97.6
Venezuela 80.0
Russia 60.0
Lybia 41.5
Nigeria 36.2
Kazakhstan 30.0
Peak oil and gas
Refers to the year in which global production will reach its maximum levels and then fall into
sustained decline.…read more


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