Energy Key Facts

A couple of key facts for the energy section of the OCR AS.

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  • Created on: 31-03-12 14:16
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Energy ­ Case Studies Key Facts
60% increase in global consumption between 1981 and 2006 and expected to
increase by 50% between 2006 and 2030.
The EU has set a Renewable Energy Directive for countries to get 15% of energy
from renewable by 2020.
Energy Sources
Oil ­ Found Saudi Arabia, Kuwait or offshore e.g. Gulf of Mexico, North Sea. -
-It is used everywhere with accounting for no less than 30% in the six areas
-It is leading energy source in USA, Middle East and Africa.
-Used most in Middle East where it accounts for about 50% of consumption and it has
61.5% of proven oil reserves.
-Global proven oil reserves 1208.2 thousand million barrels in 2006.
-The world oil reserves to production ratio is 40.5 years according to the 2007 BP
Statistical Review of World Energy.
Coal - There are more than a trillion tonnes of readily available coal, with 27% in USA,
17% in Russia, 13% in China, 10%India, 9% Australia, 5% S Africa, 19% Other.
-USA has enough to last 250 years at present consumption rate.
-UK has 1 billion tonnes.
-Global consumption is roughly 5 billion tonnes a year, China burns most ­ 1531m
tonnes, 1117 Europe, 1094 USA, 431 India, 288 Russia, 1602 Other.
-produces 83% of power plant CO2 emissions
Gas- Production dominated by USA and Russia together producing 40% of world total.
-Total proved global reserves 2006 ­ 181.46 trillion cubic metres.
-Proved reserves Middle East has largest share with 40.5% followed by Europe and
Eurasia with 35.3%, Africa 8.2%, Asia Pacific 7.8%,N America 4.4%, S and Central America
3.8%.
Nuclear - In 2004 there were 442 nuclear plants producing 16% of global electricity
supply.
-Highest producer is USA, producing 781 TWh, followed by France then Japan. India has
3,728 plants in planning or under construction.
UK ­ MEDC Energy
2008- 46%Gas. 31% Coa. 13% Nuclear. 5%Other. 2% Wind 1% Oil 1 % Hydro
New generation in next 2 years mainly gas fired ­ 12GW ­ onshore wind 8GW,
offshore wind 5GW, Other 3 GW.
UK power stations need to be closed or developed in next decade esp coal and
nuclear. ­ target of cutting greenhouse emissions by 60%

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Oil + Gas ­ Taken between ½ and ¾ of North Sea oil and gas, since2005 net importer of
natural gas.
2010 UK used 104.3bn cubic metres compared to peak of 103.5bn in 2003
Used 20% North Sea Gas.…read more

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Rural ­ Case Studies Key Facts
South Africa ­ Eastern Cape ­ Characteristics of Rural Area
Functions
-Welcomewood- rural resettlement camp with 2000 pop, Africans who speak Afrikaans
moved from Upington in 70s to where they speak Xhosea so social differentiation.
Mixed housing quality. Subsistence agriculture. Poor road quality and network. Water
tap on roadside. No refuse collection or electricity. Limited emp.
-Peelton-12km NE of King Williams Town, pastoral area. Limited water supplies. 5000
pop. Housing quality from mud and sticks to stone buildings.…read more

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