First 326 words of the document:
Encoding in short term memory
There are 3 ways information can be encoded: visually, acoustically and
Did a experiment using repeated measures design
He used 2 conditions: one list of letters that were acoustically similar e.g.
d,p,e... and then another list of letters with acoustically dissimilar letters
Participants had to watch the list of letters flick up quickly on the screen
and remember them in order. They then wrote what they remembered down.
The participants then repeated this method with the second condition they
measured the results by counting the number of letters put in the correct
This shows that we encode information acoustically. If we did not encode
the information acoustically, we would not get confused with similar
sounding letters and make more mistakes in the acoustically similar
Replicated the Conrad study by asking participants to remember acoustically
similar letters. They prevented encoding by making the participants say `la,la,la...'.
They still remembered some letters showing we encode some short term memory
Duration of short term memory
This is how long information can be remembered for in short term memory.
Mr and Mrs. Peterson
The experiment was repeated measures design.
Participants were told to remember nonsense trigrams.
As each trigram was said an interference task was said at the same time
which was to count back from a certain number in 2's.
A black box with a green light on it told them to begin counting, when the
light turned red they stopped counting and wrote down the letters.
This was repeated 6 times with the duration increasing by 3 seconds each
As the time increased the percentage of participants correctly
remembering the trigram decreased.