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Halogen Benefits Risks
Fluorine Used to make plastics such as PTFE Element is highly reactive and handling must be
Applied to toothpaste to strengthen tooth paste to a minimum.
enamel
Used to make HCFC


Chlorine An important intermediate in the manufacture of Pesticides can accumulate in the environment (
hyrdochloric…

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indicator that changes colour.


A fixed volume of solution of unknown concentration is placed in a conical flask using a
pipette.
A few drops of a suitable indicator are added to the mixture and placed on a white tile (to
see the end point clearly).
The solution of known concentration…

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There is a sharp jump in ionisation enthalpy when an electron is removed from a full electron
shell. Aluminium has an electron arrangement of 2.8.3 so after the third ionisation enthalpy,
the ionisation enthalpy increase lots!

Oxidation and Reduction
when an oxidation and a reduction reaction occur simultaneously, this is…

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Appearance and Volatility Solubility in Solubility in
state at room water organic solvents
temp
Fluorine (F2) Pale yellow gas Gas reacts with water Soluble
Chlorine (Cl2) Green gas Gas Slightly soluble to Soluble to give
give a pale green pale green
solution solution
Bromine Dark red liquid Liquid quickly Slightly…

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An s subshell has 1 orbital holding a maximum of 2 electrons
A p subshell has 3 orbitals holding a maximum of 6 electrons
A d subshell has 5 orbitals holding a maximum of 10 electrons.
The arrangement of electrons in shells is called the electronic configuration.
Orbitals are filled…

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PD-PD bonds are responsible for holding polyester molecules together.
Electronegativity
The degree in which an atom of an element attracts an element is called its electronegativity. The
more electronegative an element, the greater attraction for electrons. Order for some common
elements is:
F>o>Cl>Br and N>I>S>C>H
The difference between the electronegativity's…

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The chloroalkane is immiscible in water and forms a layer above the aqueous products. There are 5
stages in purification of the chloroalkane:


The upper layer containing the chloroalkane is run off into a clean beaker.
The chloroalkane is shaken with a solution of sodium hydrogencarbonate to remove any acid…

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Raw material -------------------- feedstock ------------------------- products
rock salt brine Sodium, hydroxide, hydrogen
(sodium chloride solution) and chlorine

Chlorine is the desired product. Sodium hydroxide and hydrogen are co-products ­ produced at the
same time as the desired product via the same reaction. As the amount of desired product increases
so…

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%atom economy= (relative formula mass of product/relative formula mass of reactants
used)x100

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