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Oxidative phosphorylation
Each electron is passed down from one energy
level to the next, releasing energy that powers
the production of ATP.
ADP is phosphorylated in a process that
depends on the presence of oxygen.…read more

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Reduced NAD NAD Electron passed to next
carrier ­ oxidation is loss of
Coenzymes NAD and electrons.
FAD act as hydrogen ADP ATP
acceptors for hydrogen
released from the Krebs FAD
cycle. Reduced FAD
ADP ATP
Reduced Oxidised
cytochromes cytochromes
ADP ATP
Cytochrome oxidase ­ an
enzyme that receives the Reduced Oxidised
electrons from the cytochrome Cytochrome
cytochromes and is reduced as
oxidase oxidase
the cytochromes are oxidised.
Oxygen ­ the final hydrogen
acceptor in the chain. When
the oxygen is reduced, water is
formed and the chain ends.
H2O O2…read more

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There is a concentration
gradient, a pH gradient and an
electrochemical gradient.
Chemiosmotic theory
Protons are actively transported into the inner and outer
mitochondrial membranes, using the energy provided from the
electron transport chain.
The inner mitochondrial membrane is impermeable to protons.
The membrane space has a higher concentration of H+ ions
than the matrix, so there is a concentration gradient across the
membrane.
The H+ ions can only move back into the matrix via special
pores on the stalked particles.
The energy from the gradients is used to drive the synthesis of
ATP, using an ATPase enzyme.…read more

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How much ATP is gained?
Number of molecules of
Stages in ATP ATP used NADH FADH2
aerobic produced by produced produced
respiration SLP
Glycolysis 4 2 2 0
Link reaction 0 0 2 0
Krebs 2 0 6 2
Total 6 2 10 2
As a result 4 molecules of ATP are produced. The remaining 34 are
produced by oxidative phosphorylation.…read more

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