Effects of Emotional Privation - Tizard and Hodges

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Tizard & Hodges (1984 & 1989) : Effects of Emotional Privation
Aim: To examin the effects of emotional privation on enfants.
Method: They carried out a natural experiment studying 65 children bought up in a childrens home
until the age of 4. During this time the children were unable to form an attachment to any of the adults
as staff were discouraged from doing so to prevent upsetting the children when they left the job.
They had, on average, 50 different care givers before the age of 4. At the age of 4, 25 of the children
were returned to their biological parents / 33 were adopted and 7 children continued in care, being
fostered for some periods of time and then returned. Tizard and Hodges visited the children with
their famillies/careers at the age of 8, and also interviewed them with a career present at the age of
16. They also contacted their schools and interviewed their teachers/peers aged 16.
Results: At the age of 2, all the children showed unusual attachment behaviours. Rather than
showing fear of strangers they would demand he attention of anybody who entered the room. They
would also cry when they left, despite having no attachment to them.
They found that out of the adopted children: 20/21 had formed close attachments at 8 years old with
only 1/21 appearing rejecting or hostile towards their care gives.
On the other hand they found that only 6/13 from the restored group had developed attachments
(aged 8) and 7/13 appeared rejecting/hostile.
At 16 years of age: 17/21 in the adopted group had formed close attachments where as 4/21 were
rejecting and hostile.
In the restored group: 5/9 had formed close relations compared to 4/9 who were rejecting/hostile.
They found that the restored group had worse relationships with their siblings than those who were
adopted. They also found that all of the childen had difficulties with peer relationships and were less
likely to belong to a crowd. They were rated by their teachers as being more likely to seek adult
Evaluation: Participant attrition means that it is harder to generalise as we are left with a smaller
group and can not specify reasons for dropping out of the study.
Conclusion: Children who were adopted managed to form better relationships than those who
were restore. This is perhaps becaus of financial situations/living conditions etc. Explaining why the
child was originally place in care.
:) Laura saunders xxx


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