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Period 1: (Late 1950's to 1980's)
· Rapid increase in recorded crime
· REINER (2007): Rise probably due to fact public were
reporting not due to rise in crime. Some reasons include:
­ Economic change lead to affluence = more goods in
peoples homes which results in a greater
intolerance of theft which leads to increase in
reporting of burglary and theft
­ Increased affluence = greater uptake in insurance
which encourages reporting of burglary and theft
­ Reporting crime encouraged due to increase in
anonymity
­ Pre 1960's W/C dealt with own social problems
however W/C communities went in to decline due to
slum clearance, decline of trad. Industries and re-
location of out of town council estates and
individuals became more individualistic which resulted
in increase in reporting crime…read more

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Period 2 (1980's to 1992)
· Increase in crimes committed
· WILSON & HIRSCHI (Right Realists): crime rose due to
criminal justice system being perceived as weak by
criminals.
· Other Right Realists claimed increase due to
`permissiveness of 60's and 70's where a generation
characterised by morally irresponsibility, family
breakdowns and deviant lifestyles.
· Reiner: crime rise due to economic factors (increase in
consumerism, unemployment, poverty and
inequalities in wealth and income). These factors lead
to change in values and attitudes ­individualism, greed,
social exclusion and feelings of injustice.
· FIELD: When economy is experiencing recession
property crime increases.…read more

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Period 3 (1992 onwards)
· Crime has been on the decrease since '92 but fear is on rise
­ 2/3 individuals according to BCS (1997) think crime is on
increase
· REINER: Labour gov. have contributed to this by intro.ing
policies to reduce unemployment and poverty
· In general standard of living for people in UK has increased
since 1997 = Less motivation to commit property crime
· RIGHT REALISTS: say this change due to increased
spending on police and prisons being tough on crime since
the early 90's.
· 1999: new laws introduced against certain types of violence
which were not previously seen as serious crime (racial
violence, assault on police officer) so recording has
increased even though violence hasn't.
· Increase in female violence which indicates a `genderquake'
in attitudes and behaviour of young females.
· FIELD: when society is experiencing affluence (since 2000)
violent crime increases because extra income often spent
on alcohol which often fuels violence.…read more

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OCS and Victims of Crime (1)
· It has been suggested the OCS can tell us
more about victims of crime then crime and
criminals ­ i.e. the dark figure of crime may
exist due to support from research which shows
victims may not report crimes for various
reasons;
­ They may not be aware they were victims
­ Victim may feel they won't be believed ­ e.g.
Childline 1980…read more

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OCS and Victims (2)
­ Some crimes have no victim such as drug
offences and prostitution so these victimless
crimes depend on police detection. The
detection varies from area to area so the
OCS are tell us more about whether the
police are cracking down or avoiding arrests
due to local or national pressures
­ Early BCS suggest people lacked confidence
in police's ability to clear up certain crimes
(burglary detection rate only 10%)
­ Victims of an ethnic minority background or
homosexuals may distrust police and feel
they won't take them seriously…read more

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