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WHY CHILDREN FROM WORKING CLASS
BACKGROUNDS ARE MORE LIKELY TO
UNDERACHIEVE IN EDUCATION
Lack of `cultural capital'
`Problem' schools in deprived areas
Use of restricted code of language
Parents attitudes to education and lower level of parental education mean they
can't help/advise their children
Teacher evaluations-stereotyping, streaming, labelling
Material factors (poorer housing, diet, sickness, low income)
Peer influence
Getting a job is seen as more important…read more

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MATERIAL DEPRIVATION
Smith and noble (1995) list the barriers to learning which can result from low
income, they include:
Money for uniform, trips, books, transport ONEY FOR UNIFORM, TRIPS, BOOKS,
TRANSPORT
Computer/internet access
Educational toys, books, space to work
Better resourced/more successful schools exist in more affluent areas
Working class children are more likely to suffer material deprivation, they lack the
money to succeed
Middle class children's parents can afford to move into encatchment areas of goo
schools, pay for private tuition, trips, books etc.…read more

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OUTSIDE FACTORS
JWB Douglas (1964)- The home and the school.
Found significant variations in educational attainment between students of
similar ability but from different social classes. Also parental interest is the single
most important factor in the children's education
Positive discrimination-governments have attempted to reduce material
disadvantages by putting more resources into poorer areas
Educational Action Zones (labour late 1990s)-25% more money to local
authorities in poor areas…read more

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CULTURAL CAPITAL
Used by Marxists to explain cultural influences on middle class educational
success
Bourdieu and Passeron (1977) suggested that cultural capital is as valuable in
educational terms as material wealth (economic capital)
Middle class children are more likely to achieve because they have more cultural
capital. They have the knowledge and skills that are valued on education
Restricted codes-characterised by short grammatically simple, often unfinished
sentence's
Elaborated codes-explicitly verbalises many of the meanings that are taken for
granted on a restricted code…read more

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PIERRE BOURDIEU (1930-2002)
Cultural difference theory
Wrote `The School as a Conservative Force' 1974
Marxist perspective towards educational system and saw it as an agent of
social control for the benefit of capitalism
Dominant culture-the higher peoples position=the greater amount of
dominant culture they possess
The possession of dominant culture by an individual if referred to as cultural
capital, because via the education system, this can be translated into wealth
and power…read more

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