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Education Sociologists
Class Differences ­ External
Bernstein

Middle class mothers choose educational toys
Working class use the restricted code: middle class use elaborated code with vocabulary and
more complex sentences
This gives middle classes advantages at school

Sugarman

Working class subculture has 4 features that are a barrier to educational…

Page 2

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They concluded this was due to labelling and different treatment which led to a self-fulfilling
prophecy

Lacey

Found that pupils place in low streams had low self esteem
Many then formed anti school subcultures to gain status among peers

Gilborn and Youdell

A-C economy since marketisation has led to `Educational…

Page 3

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`ethnocentric curriculum' in British schools which prioritises white culture
This is an example of institutional racism

Gender differences ­ External
Sharpe

Interviewed girls in 1970s and 1990s
Found low aspirations in 1970s and priorities were `marriage, husbands and children'
In 1990s careers to support themselves were a priority

Gender differences…

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Chubb and Moe

Each family should have a voucher to spend on buying education at the school of their choice.
This would make schools compete and would improve quality

Marxism
Althusser

The education system is an ideological state apparatus which reproduces class inequality and
legitimates it by persuading workers to…

Page 5

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It gave power to parents and encouraged diversity and choice

Ball and Whitty

Marketisation reproduces inequality because middle class parents have cultural capital to get
their children into good schools
This is the myth of parentocracy

New Labour policies since 1997 (to 2010)

Sought to reduce inequality of achievement and…

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