Education Sociologists

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Education Sociologists
Class Differences ­ External
Bernstein
Middle class mothers choose educational toys
Working class use the restricted code: middle class use elaborated code with vocabulary and
more complex sentences
This gives middle classes advantages at school
Sugarman
Working class subculture has 4 features that are a barrier to educational achievement:
Fatalism, Collectivism , Immediate gratification, and present time orientation
Tanner
Poor families can't afford transport, uniforms, books, computers, sports, music and art
equipment so they make do with second hand or cheap clothes and equipment
Bourdieu
Middle class children have `cultural capital' which helps at school
It includes knowledge, attitudes, language and tastes
Gewirtz
Cultural and economic capital gives middle class families more choice of schools since
marketisation started.
Class Differences ­ Internal
Rist
Studied American kindergarten
Teacher labelled and grouped children as fast learners called `tigers' who were mainly middle
class
She treated them differently from `cardinals' and `clowns' who were mainly working class
Rosenthal and Jacobson
Tested pupils and told teachers they had identified `spurters'.
These pupils were chosen at random
They returned and tested pupils a year later.
They found half had spurted

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They concluded this was due to labelling and different treatment which led to a self-fulfilling
prophecy
Lacey
Found that pupils place in low streams had low self esteem
Many then formed anti school subcultures to gain status among peers
Gilborn and Youdell
A-C economy since marketisation has led to `Educational triage'
Schools ignore `hopeless cases' often working class and / or black which leads to self-fulfilling
prophecy and failure
Ethnic differences - External
Moynihan
Black lone parent families suffer `cultural deprivation' financially and because of…read more

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British schools which prioritises white culture
This is an example of institutional racism
Gender differences ­ External
Sharpe
Interviewed girls in 1970s and 1990s
Found low aspirations in 1970s and priorities were `marriage, husbands and children'
In 1990s careers to support themselves were a priority
Gender differences ­ Internal
Gorard
1988 GCSEs and coursework were introduced
This favoured girls who then did much better than boys
Epstein
Laddish subcultures form because working class boys who study are labelled as sissies or `gay'
because they associate…read more

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Chubb and Moe
Each family should have a voucher to spend on buying education at the school of their choice.…read more

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It gave power to parents and encouraged diversity and choice
Ball and Whitty
Marketisation reproduces inequality because middle class parents have cultural capital to get
their children into good schools
This is the myth of parentocracy
New Labour policies since 1997 (to 2010)
Sought to reduce inequality of achievement and promote greater diversity, choice and
competition
They believe that achieving these goals would also make Britain more competitive in the global
economy by turning the nation into a high skill, high wage society
Education Action…read more

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