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Sociology revision - summary of education broke down

Cultural deprivation
Cultural deprivation refers to the basic skills, norms and values needed in

Speech codes (1)

Basil Bernstein distinguishes between 2 speech codes elaborated and

Restricted code - limited vocab, simple sentences…

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intellectual development so when they begin school they're at a
disadvantage compared to WC children.

Criticisms of cultural deprivation theory

Ignore importance of material factors such as poverty.
Ignore impact of social factors such as neg labelling by teachers.
Blames victims for failure - WC not culturally deprived they just…

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Streaming (3)

Lacey describe streaming as `differentiation' and often creates A SFP
by being separated into groups such as high/low.
Douglas - 1Q of pupils labelled as less able placed in bottom streams
whereas pupils who had a higher IQ and placed in higher streams
Pupils placed in lower…

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Cultural deprivation (1)
Intellectual and language skills (1)

Berieter and Engelmann claim that language of poorer black American
families is ungrammatical and disjointed. Children are unable to express
abstract ideas.

Attitudes, values and family structure (2)

Difference in attitudes. Values toward education may result in different
socialisation as shown below;…

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Victim blaming - minority ethnic group children culturally different not
culturally deprived and underachieve because schools are ethnocentric
and in favour of whites.
Cultural exclusion - minority ethnic group parents are at disadvantage
and less aware of how to negotiate the British education system. Results
in cultural exclusion rather than…

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Asian pupils;

Wright - found Asian primary school pupil's stereotyped by
teachers and treated differently.
Teachers mispronounced their names and if they saw them as
a problem or needed help they'd ignore them
Connolly - found primary school teachers saw Asian pupils as
passive and conformist. Asian boys were seen…

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teacher's approval, maintained friendship with black girls in
lower streams and are similar to the innovators in Sewell's
Mac and Ghaill - Asian A-level student at sixth form found they
didn't not accept teacher negative labels
Mira - black girl's strategies for dealing with teacher racism
didn't accept label…

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affect school admissions. Difficult for some minority pupils to
get into high-achieving school. Education system becoming
more racially segregated
Self segregation - Asian parents made active choice to avoid
`rough' school with rep for racism option for one's they
perceived as safe from discipline.


External factors…

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Changed in women's employment (4)

Women's employment has risen rapidly.
Changes in law improved position of women working such as
the pay gap between women and men and the equal pay act
and sex discrimination act
As a results of laws women have more incentive to see future


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French and French - teachers paid boys and girls similar
amount of attention for academic reason. Boys received more
attention overall because they attracted more punishment for
Francis - found that although boys received more attention
they were disciplined more harshly. They felt teachers picked
on them and had…


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