Education revision summary notes

  • summary notes on education
  • topic 1 2 and 3 which are ethnic differences in achievement, class differences in achievement and gender differences in achievement.
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Sociology revision - summary of education broke down
Cultural deprivation
Cultural deprivation refers to the basic skills, norms and values needed in
Speech codes (1)
Basil Bernstein distinguishes between 2 speech codes elaborated and
Restricted code - limited vocab, simple sentences and gestures.
Particularistic assumes listener shares meaning that speaker holds. Used
by WC.
Elaborated code - wide vocab, complex sentences. Universalistic sper
spells out meaning and doesn't assume listener shares them. Used by
Working class subcultures (2)
There are 3 aspects of WC subculture
Immediate gratification - willing to make sacrifices and work hard for
future rewards.
Fatalism - `whatever will be will be' WC don't believe they can improve
position through individual efforts.
Low value on education - WC don't value education so don't try.
Douglas found that parents show less interest in their education and give
them less support, MC parents attend parent evening unlike WC
Intellectual development (3)
WC parents less likely to give children educational toys/activities that
stimulate thinking/reasoning skills. Less likely to read to them this affect

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WC children.
Criticisms of cultural deprivation theory
Ignore importance of material factors such as poverty.
Ignore impact of social factors such as neg labelling by teachers.
Blames victims for failure - WC not culturally deprived they just have dif
culture from school which puts them at a disadvantage.
Material deprivation
WC underachieves in education because of 3 factors;
Poor housing - overcrowding, cold or damp room means lack of space
to do homework. Homeless or living in temporary accommodation mean
frequent move/changes in schools.…read more

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Streaming (3)
Lacey describe streaming as `differentiation' and often creates A SFP
by being separated into groups such as high/low.
Douglas - 1Q of pupils labelled as less able placed in bottom streams
whereas pupils who had a higher IQ and placed in higher streams
Pupils placed in lower streams denied access to same curriculum such
as not being put into higher exams because they are seen as less able
to achieve them.…read more

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Cultural deprivation (1)
Intellectual and language skills (1)
Berieter and Engelmann claim that language of poorer black American
families is ungrammatical and disjointed. Children are unable to express
abstract ideas.
Attitudes, values and family structure (2)
Difference in attitudes. Values toward education may result in different
socialisation as shown below;
Fatalism and immediate gratification - subculture into which some
black children are socialised it fatalistic, focused on immediate
gratification causes lack of motivation to succeed in education.…read more

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Victim blaming - minority ethnic group children culturally different not
culturally deprived and underachieve because schools are ethnocentric
and in favour of whites.
Cultural exclusion - minority ethnic group parents are at disadvantage
and less aware of how to negotiate the British education system. Results
in cultural exclusion rather than cultural deprivation.
Cultural domination - compensatory Education imposes dominant in
white MC.
Material deprivation and class (2)
Material deprivation is lack of physical or economic resources
essential for society.…read more

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Asian pupils;
Wright - found Asian primary school pupil's stereotyped by
teachers and treated differently.
Teachers mispronounced their names and if they saw them as
a problem or needed help they'd ignore them
Connolly - found primary school teachers saw Asian pupils as
passive and conformist. Asian boys were seen as more
feminine, vulnerable and less able to protect themselves.
Teachers assumed they would have poor grasp of English.…read more

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Mac and Ghaill - Asian A-level student at sixth form found they
didn't not accept teacher negative labels
Mira - black girl's strategies for dealing with teacher racism
didn't accept label but were still disadvantage.
Institutional racism and ethnocentricity (3)
Troyna and Williams - gives priority to white culture and
English language
David - national curriculum specifically British.…read more

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Difficult for some minority pupils to
get into high-achieving school. Education system becoming
more racially segregated
Self segregation - Asian parents made active choice to avoid
`rough' school with rep for racism option for one's they
perceived as safe from discipline.…read more

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Changed in women's employment (4)
Women's employment has risen rapidly.
Changes in law improved position of women working such as
the pay gap between women and men and the equal pay act
and sex discrimination act
As a results of laws women have more incentive to see future
Internal factors and girls achievement
Equal opportunities policies (1)
GIST and WISE - encourage girls into science and technology
National curriculum - girls and boys now study same subjects.…read more

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French and French - teachers paid boys and girls similar
amount of attention for academic reason. Boys received more
attention overall because they attracted more punishment for
Francis - found that although boys received more attention
they were disciplined more harshly. They felt teachers picked
on them and had lower expectations.
Swann - found Boys dominate class discussion whereas girls
prefer group work and also found that teachers respond more
positively to girls and give them more encouragement.…read more


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