Education Quick Revision

key points on education AQA AS sociology :)

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Education Quick Revision!
Unit 1:-
Functionalists Perspective:
Emile Durkheim:
Social solidarity:- He believes that it is essential for the survival of society.
It is based on essential similarities between members of society. And Durkheim
believes that education develops these similarities.
History and social solidarity:- Durkheim sees a common history as vital for
unity in society. With a shared history people feel part of a wider social group.
Specialised skills:- In industrial society people have specialised jobs with
specific skills and knowledge required. Occupational skills are normally passed
down from parents to children. Durkheim says: that this division of labour relies
on the education system to provide the skills and knowledge required by the
workforce.
Talcott Parsons:
Developed Dukheim's ideas, he believed that schools are a miniature version of
the wider society, reflect the values of wider society, and prepare for adult roles.
1) Secondary socialisation:- bridge between families and wider society,
schools build on primary socialisation developed by the family.
2) Individual achievement is a major value in modern industrial society.
High achievement is rewarded by praise, high status and good grades. This gets
them ready to achieve as individuals in the world of work.
3) Equality of opportunity in education as every child has the same chance
to do well in modern society. Schools allow this as they give every child and
equal chance of success.
Role allocation:-
- Sifting, sorting, assessing and evaluating young people in terms of their
talents and abilities, then allocating them to appropriate roles in wider society.
- Testing to find their talents, and matching to job
Evaluation:
Ignore that education may transmit class inequalities
Some students may not feel connections to subjects e.g. history and therefore
discourages social solidarity.
Evidence that some groups underachieve in school.
Difficult to see ink between work and subjects.

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Marxist perspective: Education allows the ruling class to stay at top and benefit
capitalism.
Louis Althusser:
The education system has been replaced the church as a main agent of ideological
control. Ideology is fundamental for social control in capitalist society and
education transmit's this ideology.
Samuel Bowles & Herbert Gintis:-
Close relationship between social relationships in classroom and in work place,
essential for social reproduction, so the next generations accept their roles in
capitalist society.…read more

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Girls are more caring
Girls have more interest in housework
Women:-
Have traditional subject choices, discrimination e.g. 11+ had a lower grade for
boys the girls, and number of girls going on to further education is lower.
Evaluation:-
Women are getting treated better, and achieving higher grades, now the
underachievement of boys is the concern.…read more

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Allow schools and colleges to become self managing, control own financing.
Stop relying on directions from above
Make better school management and higher qualified teachers= raise
educational standards
Higher standards = higher achievement especially for those at the bottom =
escape from welfare.
Education is essential for success in an increasing competitive global market-
place. Must compete in the market to offer parents real choice and raise
standards.…read more

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Basil Bernstein:- Restricted (working class) and Elaborated codes (middle class).
Restricted- this is short hand, between family and between people who
know each other.
Elaborated codes- this is explained and has meaning.
Middle class can change their code according to the situation.
Teachers use elaborated code so w/c students have a disadvntage.
Basil Bernstein Evaluation:-
o Shows how schools can contribute to educational achievement, middle class
have advantage as they can speak the elaborated code and converse with
teachers.…read more

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Social class in schools:
Labelling theory: Rosental and Jacobson:
Working class labelled as less able and middle class labelled as able. This
leads to self fulfilling prophecy or self denying prophecy.
Setting and streaming:
o Abilitiy grouping lead to middle class being in the top groups and
working class in the lower groups.…read more

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Increase in divorce: Makes less marriages, and more cohabiting
Changes in schools:
Abolition of the 11+ and intro of comprehensive schools removed some of barrier
for boys and girls.
National curriculum made compulsory subjects which increased equal
opportunity.
Changes in society:
It is characterised by risk, uncertainty and individualisation. A job is not for life,
so future is uncertain, you are an individual not just part of a social group.…read more

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Post 16 Education: Indian and Chinese are more likely to go on to further
education than any other ethnic group.
Explaining ethnic differences in attainment:
Social class: Ethnic groups that are underachieving have a high proportion of
working class. But it varies group to group.
Cultural factors:
Language barrier: having a language at home and a different one at school.
Value placed on education: parent encouragement and pressure.
Tony Sewell: many African Caribbean boys were brought up in female
headed lone parent families.…read more

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School organizations:
o Hierarchy of status, power and authority (males?)
o Who is the most powerful (teachers?)
o Streams and sets, who is in them (black?)
Behavior and attitude of those in authority:
o Do pupils have a say
o How is head
Functionalist view: It is the core value of main function of education.
Talcott Parsons: Individual achievement, exams are by yourself, this is
preparation for wider society.
Marxist View: social reproduction, allow acceptance of your jobs.…read more

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Keep low profile
Want to do well but don't want teachers involved as some are racist
Teachers expectations: Labeling andideal student
Setting:
Mixed ability= encourages co-operation, friendly and help.
Sets= seems like ability is fixed and won't change so pupils believe that, and
makes it less equal.
Sometimes behavior moves you into high or low sets.
Unit 6:-
Social policy and education:
1870 education act: provides state run elementary schools for 5- 11 year olds, 9p
a week max! 1880 it was compulsory to attend.…read more

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