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Education Quick Revision!
Unit 1:-
Functionalists Perspective:

Emile Durkheim:

Social solidarity:- He believes that it is essential for the survival of society.
It is based on essential similarities between members of society. And Durkheim
believes that education develops these similarities.

History and social solidarity:- Durkheim sees a common history as…

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Marxist perspective: Education allows the ruling class to stay at top and benefit

Louis Althusser:

The education system has been replaced the church as a main agent of ideological
control. Ideology is fundamental for social control in capitalist society and
education transmit's this ideology.

Samuel Bowles & Herbert Gintis:-…

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Girls are more caring
Girls have more interest in housework


Have traditional subject choices, discrimination e.g. 11+ had a lower grade for
boys the girls, and number of girls going on to further education is lower.


Women are getting treated better, and achieving higher grades, now the

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Allow schools and colleges to become self managing, control own financing.
Stop relying on directions from above
Make better school management and higher qualified teachers= raise
educational standards
Higher standards = higher achievement especially for those at the bottom =
escape from welfare.

Education is essential for success in an…

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Basil Bernstein:- Restricted (working class) and Elaborated codes (middle class).

Restricted- this is short hand, between family and between people who
know each other.
Elaborated codes- this is explained and has meaning.
Middle class can change their code according to the situation.
Teachers use elaborated code so w/c students have…

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Social class in schools:

Labelling theory: Rosental and Jacobson:

Working class labelled as less able and middle class labelled as able. This
leads to self fulfilling prophecy or self denying prophecy.

Setting and streaming:

o Abilitiy grouping lead to middle class being in the top groups and
working class in…

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breakdown, see single women living good lives and then see education as a means
of financial independence.

Increase in divorce: Makes less marriages, and more cohabiting

Changes in schools:

Abolition of the 11+ and intro of comprehensive schools removed some of barrier
for boys and girls.

National curriculum made compulsory…

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Post 16 Education: Indian and Chinese are more likely to go on to further
education than any other ethnic group.

Explaining ethnic differences in attainment:

Social class: Ethnic groups that are underachieving have a high proportion of
working class. But it varies group to group.

Cultural factors:

Language barrier: having…

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School organizations:

o Hierarchy of status, power and authority (males?)
o Who is the most powerful (teachers?)
o Streams and sets, who is in them (black?)

Behavior and attitude of those in authority:

o Do pupils have a say
o How is head

Functionalist view: It is the core value…

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Keep low profile
Want to do well but don't want teachers involved as some are racist

Teachers expectations: Labeling andideal student


Mixed ability= encourages co-operation, friendly and help.

Sets= seems like ability is fixed and won't change so pupils believe that, and
makes it less equal.

Sometimes behavior moves…


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