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Differential education achievement and class
Economic and cultural capital and Marketisation
Ball, Bowe and Gewirtz
- (1995) claims that middle class parents are able to make better educational choices because of their
economic and cultural capital. For example, they can afford to pay extra travel costs to send their

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less likely to attend parents' evenings and to stimulate intellectual development by reading to their children.


Bernstein (1973) argues that working class students underachieve because they are socialised into a
restricted language code (e.g. small vocabulary, poor grammar, descriptive language) which does not fit
the elaborated code (e.g. wide…

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Studies of pupil subcultures challenge stereotypes of African Caribbean pupils. E.g. Fuller's study of black
girls shows they keeps a positive selfimage despite the negative way they are labelled.

- Mac an Ghaill
- describes how gender regimes in schools operate through an informal hierarchy which gives high…

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students tended to dominate science lessons, e.g. monopolise equipment and shout out answers

teachers tended to explain scientific terms using examples which males are more likely to identify with.
e.g. explaining eclipses with the aid of footballs.

- Lobban's analysis of school reading schemes showed hidden messages about genderappropriate


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