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Individual factors ­ genes &
General agreement that intelligence is due to
both inherited and cultural factors (- nature v
Jensen & Eysenk argue intelligence is 60-80%
IQ brought into education in1945 along with the
butler education act 1944 (tripartite system)
with the 11+ as an IQ test which determine what
type of school they went to (grammar/
secondary/ technical) and all schools
supposedly had `parity of esteem'…read more

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Home explanations
Material Cultural Cultural
Deprivation Deprivation Capital…read more

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- Poor housing can affect pupils achievement both directly & indirectly ­
M e.g. overcrowding can make it hard to study + less room for educational
activities, homework etc. M
A HOUSING - Families in temporary hosing move frequently = disruption to education A
T & changing schools.
E - Development can be impaired ­ young children ­ nowhere Safe to
explore/ play E
- Marilyn Howard 2001 ­ young people from poorer homes have lower A
intakes of energy, vitamins and minerals => poor nutrition = more L
absences and difficulties concentrating
D DIET & HEALTH - Also more likely to have emotional/ behavioural problems
-Wilkinson 1996 ­ among 10y/o, those from lower social classes = higher D
rate of hyperactivity, anxiety + conduct disorders = all have negative E
P effect on education! P
R - linking to housing = overcrowding = more likely to have accidents +
illnesses (- cold/damp) = absences from school R
V -Lack of financial support = children from poor families have to do V
A without equipment + miss out on experiences (e.g. trips) which would
T enhance their learning.
FINACIAL SUPPORT & - Ball 1980 = `costs of free schooling' T
I - Tanner 2003 ­ equipment places heavy burden on poor families =>
O children may have to use hand-me-downs & cheaper but unfashionable
N equipment = stigmatised and bullied
- Ridge ­ children in poverty take on jobs e.g. Cleaning which negatively N
effects school work.…read more

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Definition: lack of appropriate norms/ values which Definition: lack of things money can buy that help
lead to success in education lead to education success
Parents don't have knowledge/ experience/ confidence Poor housing leading to illness
to `play the system'
Not having money to move into catchment area Overcrowded housing ­ nowhere to work privately
therefore kids got to local/ poorer school
Parents lack of confidence in challenging education & Lack of money for school trips
Parents not motivating/ encouraging children Poor diet leading to illness
Parents not attending parents' evening through choice Incorrect/ old uniform = bullying
Parents choice of outside school activities not Lack of resources ­ books, pens etc.
constructive to education
Instant gratification Having to look after siblings and working part time
Parents unwilling/ unable to help with homework Having no money to make it into catchment area for
school and having to go to local.
Parents not being involved with school life…read more

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Cultural Deprivation
Intellectual Attitudes &
Development Values…read more

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