Edexcel Unit C1 Topic 4 Extraction of Metals

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Topic 4 Obtaining and using metals
4.1 Recall that:
a most metals are extracted from ores found in the Earth's crust
b unreactive metals are found in the Earth as the uncombined elements
4.2 Describe how most metals are extracted from their ores by:
a heating with carbon, illustrated by iron
b electrolysis, illustrated by aluminium
(knowledge of the blast furnace or the electrolytic cell for aluminium extraction are
not required)
4.3 Explain why the method used to extract a metal is related to its position in the
reactivity series and cost of the extraction process
4.4 Investigate methods for extracting a metal from its ore
4.5 Describe oxidation as the gain of oxygen and reduction as the loss of oxygen
4.6 Recall that the extraction of metals involves reduction of ores
4.7 Recall that the oxidation of metals results in corrosion
4.8 Demonstrate an understanding that a metal's resistance to oxidation is related to
its position in the reactivity series
4.9 Discuss the advantages of recycling metals, including economic implications, and
how recycling preserves both the environment and the supply of valuable raw
4.10 Describe the uses of metals in relation to their properties, including:
a aluminium
b copper
c gold
d steel
4.11 Use models to explain why converting pure metals into alloys often increases the
strength of the product
4.12 Demonstrate an understanding that iron is alloyed with other metals to produce
alloy steels with a higher strength and a greater resistance to corrosion
Unit C1: Chemistry in our world
4.13 Describe how alloying changes the properties of metals, including:
a smart or shape memory alloys, including nitinol, an alloy of nickel and titanium
b gold alloys with higher strength, including fineness (parts per thousand) and carats to
indicate the proportion of pure gold
4.14 Demonstrate an understanding that new materials are developed by chemists to fit
new applications, such as the creation of new shape memory alloys for use, for
example, in spectacle frames and as stents in damaged blood vessels


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