Edexcel Unit B1 Topic 3 Problems in the Environment

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Topic 3 Problems of, and solutions to a changing environment
3.1 Define a drug as a chemical substance, such as a narcotic or hallucinogen, that
affects the central nervous system, causing changes in psychological behaviour and
possible addiction
3.2 Describe the general effects of:
a painkillers that block nerve impulses, including morphine
b hallucinogens that distort sense perception, including LSD
c stimulants that increase the speed of reactions and neurotransmission at the
synapse, including caffeine
d depressants that slow down the activity of the brain, including alcohol
3.3 Investigate reaction times
3.4 Explain the effects of some chemicals in cigarette smoke, including:
a nicotine as an addictive drug
b tar as a carcinogen
c carbon monoxide reducing the oxygen-carrying ability of the blood
3.5 Evaluate data relating to the correlation between smoking and its negative effects
on health
B1: Influences on life
3.6 Evaluate evidence of some harmful effects of alcohol abuse:
a in the short term ­ blurred vision, lowering of inhibitions, slowing of reactions
b in the long term ­ liver cirrhosis, brain damage
3.7 Discuss the ethics of organ transplants, including:
a liver transplants for alcoholics
b heart transplants for the clinically obese
c the supply of organs
3.8 Recall that infectious diseases are caused by pathogens
3.9 Describe how pathogens are spread, including:
a in water, including cholera bacterium
b by food, including Salmonella bacterium
c airborne (eg sneezing), including influenza virus
d by contact, including athlete's foot fungus
e by body fluids, including HIV
f by animal vectors, including:
i housefly: dysentery bacterium
ii Anopheles mosquito: malarial protozoan
3.10 Explain how the human body can be effective against attack from pathogens,
a physical barriers ­ skin, cilia, mucus
b chemical defence ­ hydrochloric acid in the stomach, lysozymes in tears

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Demonstrate an understanding that plants produce chemicals that have
antibacterial effects in order to defend themselves, some of which are used by
3.12 Describe how antiseptics can be used to prevent the spread of Infection
3.13 Explain the use of antibiotics to control infection, including:
a antibacterials to treat bacterial infections
b antifungals to treat fungal infections
3.14 Evaluate evidence that resistant strains of bacteria, including MRSA, can arise from
the misuse of antibiotics
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Demonstrate an understanding of how recycling can reduce the demand for
resources and the problem of waste disposal, including paper, plastics and metals
3.26 Demonstrate an understanding of how carbon is recycled:
a during photosynthesis plants remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere
b carbon compounds pass along a food chain
c during respiration organisms release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere
d decomposers release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere
e combustion of fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere
Unit B1: Influences on life
3.…read more


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