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EdExcel Additional Science
Inside Living Cells…read more

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Genes, Chromosomes and DNA…read more

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Some facts:
- Made up of paired bases
- Contain instructions on what a cell does, how the
organism should work etc
- The instructions are in the form of a code
- The code is made up from the four bases that
hold the two strands together
- The bases represent the order in which amino
acids are assembled to make proteins
- The sequence of bases determines the order in
which a cell makes amino acids, which turn into
- There are about 20 amino acids in all, and
different combinations produce different proteins…read more

Slide 4

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Making proteins
1) DNA "unravels" and a copy of one
strand is made
2) The strand copy is made to
produce RNA
3) The copy (with its code) then
moves towards the ribosome
4) The ribosome "decodes" the code
which tells the ribosome how to make
the protein
5) Amino acids are then joined
together to form a polypeptide
(protein)…read more

Slide 5

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Genetic engineering - Insulin
ENZYMES "cut out" the part of
the human chromosome that is
responsible for producing insulin.
Step 2: Using another restriction
enzyme cut open a ring of bacterial
DNA (a "plasmid"). Other enzymes
are then used to insert the piece of
human DNA into the plasmid.
Step 3: Place the plasmid into a bacterium
which will start to divide rapidly. As it
divides it will replicate the plasmid and
make millions of them, each with the
instruction to produce insulin. Commercial
quantities of insulin can then be produced.…read more

Slide 6

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A fermenter is a controlled environment (i.e.
a large device) that provides ideal conditions
for micro organisms to grow and feed.
Micro organisms
Water sensor
pH sensor
Sterile air
Outlet tap
supply…read more

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