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Page 1

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DNA molecule

· First described by Watson & Crick
in 1953
· Double Stranded
· Twisted into a helix (spiral)
· Sugar Phosphate backbone
· Complimentary pairing of bases
Adenine = Thymine
Cytosine = Guanine
· Sections of DNA contain genes
responsible for producing proteins…

Page 2

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2

Page 3

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Microorganisms




· Can be used to produce human insulin
· More effective than pig insulin
· Does not cause allergic reactions in
patients




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Page 4

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B2 revision May 22, 2012



Advantages Disadvantages

· Wide range of products · optimum conditions required
e.g. human insulin, for most efficient growth
medicines, beer · low risk of contamination
· Can be used to grow · human views on eating
mycoproteins e.g. quorn microorganisms
· Quick and efficient
·…

Page 5

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B2 revision May 22, 2012

Exercise and respiration




Yeast can respire anaerobically
and are used to produce beer
and wine
glucose ethanol + carbon + energy
Anaerobic Respiration dioxide


The point at which your heart can no longer supply the muscles
fast enough.
glucose lactic acid + energy

· Does…

Page 6

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B2 revision May 22, 2012




What is growth?

An increase in size or weight
Organisms of the same species can very in size
Some animals are able to regenerate e.g. star fish, gecko

Growth factors can be used to enhance performance

Look up examples of how these work and the…

Page 7

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B2 revision May 22, 2012



Growth depends upon:
Differentiation Stem cells becoming other types of cell e.g skin,
bone, blood, nerve

Elongation Cells grow in size and length e.g. plant cells

Cell Division making many copies of cells to allow for tissue
construction

Genes inherited from mother and father

Hormones…

Page 8

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Meiosis Production of gametes




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Page 9

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B2 revision May 22, 2012


mitosis meiosis


Provides cells for
growth and repair

Creates gametes

Daughter cells are
genetically identical

Four daughter
cells

Daughter cells
are diploid




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Page 10

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B2 revision May 22, 2012




Summarise the views of people who are for or against
legal induced abortion.

Use evidence to decide whether the law should be
changed or not. Give reasons for your answer




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jaydeep

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