Edexcel GCSE Biology 2BIO1 - Unit B2 Topic 3

Class notes for the 2011 Edexcel GCSE

Biology Unit B2 Topic 3 - Common systems

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B2 Topic 1
Topic 2 Digestion
Science B3 Topic 3 Circulation
The Circulatory System
The circulatory system is an example of a group of
organs working together. It is made up of the heart and
blood vessels.

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Page 2

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The Heart
Find out about the structure and function of the heart
Describe what happens
to a volume of blood
from the time it enters
the heart until it is
pumped through the
Describe what happens to a volume of blood from
the time it enters the heart until it is pumped
through the aorta
Vena cava brings blood from the body into right atrium. Right
atrium contracts and forces blood through valve into right
ventricle.…read more

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Blood Vessels
Carry blood away from the heart (always oxygenated apart from the
pulmonary artery which goes to the lungs)
Have thick muscular walls
Have small passageways for blood (internal lumen)
Contain blood under high pressure
Found in the muscles and lungs
Microscopic ­ one cell thick
Very low blood pressure
Where gas exchange takes place.…read more

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Fluid part of blood
Carries carbon dioxide, hormones and waste
Clump together to form clots
Protect the body by stopping bleeding
Red blood cells
Contain haemoglobin which carries oxygen
Made in the bone marrow. The more you train the more red
blood cells are made.…read more

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The digestive system
Annotated Diagram of the digestive system that includes
· functions of each part e.g.…read more

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As soon as you swallow, you have lost the conscientious
ability to control your food. From this point on it is
'pushed' along the alimentary canal by peristalsis
The bolus is squeezed down the oesophagus (gullet) by
wavelike contractions of the surrounding muscle. This is
called peristalsis.…read more

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Digestive enzymes
Research some digestive enzymes and their functions
http://www.youtube.…read more

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Active Site
Enzymes are protein molecules made up of long chains
of amino acids. These long chains are folded to
produce a special shape called the active site. Other
molecules called substrates fit into the active site
and a reaction takes place.
Explain the effect of temperature on enzyme activity
in the human body.…read more

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Predict the shape of the graph for enzyme activity and
pH. Include the shape for pepsin.…read more


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