Edexcel, Citizenship notes,

An overview of the course in light detail, not everything included but enough for the exam x

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Unit 1
Democracy
Democracy: "government of the people, by the people, for the people";
Representative and accountable government
The rule of Law and equality before the law
Freedom of opinion, belief and association.
Citizenship
Citizen:
Someone who lives in and belongs to a particular community.
Someone who has the legal right to live in a country, a legal resident.
Rights of a British Citizen:
A passport and the right to leave and enter the UK without a VISA.
The right to live and work in the UK with no time limit or work permit.
The right to vote in UK elections and take a full part in local and national service.
The right to claim benefits in the UK.
Active citizen: Action, Skills and Knowledge.
Human Rights
The human rights act covers the following areas:
Everyone has the right to life
No one can be tortured or given degrading punishment
No one can be held in slavery or forced labour.
Everyone has the right to liberty and security.
Everyone is entitled to a fair and public hearing in court if accused of a crime.
No one can be punished for an action which was not a crime when it was committed.
Everyone has the right to privacy and family life.
Everyone has the right to freedom of opinions and religion.
Everyone has the right to freedom of expression.
Everyone has the right to protest peacefully and to join, or not to join, a trade union.
Men and Women of marriageable age have the right to marry and have a family.
Everyone has the right to own and enjoy their property.

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No one can be denied the right to an education.
There must be free elections at regular intervals, with secret voting, so that people can
choose their own government.
The death penalty is abolished.
No one can be discriminated against, on any grounds in getting these rights.
Identity
Identity: The characteristics that make you, you!
Diversity: Many people from different ethnicities live together.…read more

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Crime and Punishment
Youth Justice System:
Purpose of Prison sentences:
Restitution: making amends for the crime
Deterrence: So that other offenders will be deterred from committing the same crime.
Retribution: Teaching the criminal a lesson
Reform: Offers educational training to help them return to normality
Prevention: Stops them from committing other crimes when they are in prison.
Government
Devolution: passing authority and some decision-making from central to regional government.
Electoral system: the system by which people vote to choose the people who govern them.…read more

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Local Agenda 21
It is based on the belief that it is possible to protect the global environment if people take
action in their local area.
Reducing and managing waste
Managing Land
Protecting the countryside, the landscape and natural habitats for birds and wild animals
Improving the quality of life for us and those after us
Protecting oceans and coastal areas
Reducing crime
Creating local employment
Raising awareness of environmental issues so that people play their part.…read more

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BBC Royal Charter: Constitutional basis for the BBC, coverage is objective and impartial.…read more

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