Edexcel Chemistry GCSE C3 Topics 3, 4 and 5

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Tina
  • Created on: 21-06-13 10:23
Preview of Edexcel Chemistry GCSE C3 Topics 3, 4 and 5

First 148 words of the document:

Electrolyte=ani onicsubstancethatconductselectricityeitherdissolvedinwateror
inam oltenform
Notonlys odiumandchlorideformedasthewater(OH-andH+ions)alsotakespartin
Anyi onl essr eactivethanh ydrogeni sdischargeda tthecathode( e.g.copper
dischargedi nsteado fhydrogena tt heanodei fc opperispresent)
So..att heanodeC l-isdischargedandatthecathodehydrogenisdischarged,leaving
Inerte lectrodes=electrodesm adeo funreactivem aterialsodon'ttakepartinthe
reactiont hemselvese .g.g raphite.Thef ollowing
Sodium Chloride Sodium Sulfate Copper Chloride Copper Sulfate
Anode Chlorine Oxygen Chlorine Oxugen
Cathode Hydrogen Hydrogen Copper Copper
Impure copper electrolysis
Lump of impure copper at the anode.
Pure thin sheet of copper at the cathode.
Electrolyte will be copper sulphate carrying Cu2+ ions.

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

Electricity will pull electrons off the copper atoms to make them Cu2+ (cations). Those electrons will
travel to the cathode where they would discharge Cu2+ ions back into copper atoms adding to the
sheet of pure copper.
All the impurities will be dropped at the anode as sludge.
Electroplating=coating the surface of a metal with another metal ususing electricity
Cathode = object you want to electroplate
Anode= metal you want to electroplate it with
E.G.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

The Haber process= Nitrogen + Hydrogen ammonia (+ heat)
The Nitrogen is extracted from the air (air is 78% nitrogen)
Hydrogen is obtained from natural gas
Not all the Nitrogen and Hydrogen react together, the reaction has then reached a dynamic
Conditions to make ammonia in the Harbour Process:
Pressure: 200 atmospheres
Temp: 450C
Catalyst: Iron
Higher pressures favour the forward reaction so more ammonia is produced the higher the
pressure is which is why the pressure is 200 atmospheres.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Alkanes = single bonds, saturated, formula = Cn H2n+2
Alkenes = double bonds, unsaturated, formula = Cn H2n
Formula: Cn H2n+1 OH
Way of naming an alcohol is the same as an alkanes (propane, butane, peptane) however the
e is replaced with an ol e.g. methanol, ethanol, propanol
Carboxylic acids:
Formula: Cn H2n+1 COOH
Names end in `anoic acid' e.g. methanoic acid, ethanoic acid.
Fermentation (producing ethanol):
1.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

As a fuel:
1. Fermentation uses a renewable energy source (sugar beet and sugar cane) so we know we'll
never run out of plants to produce the ethanol from.
2. It's expensive to concentrate and purify the ethanol.
Ethanol produced from Ethene using steam
Ethene made by cracking crude oil fractions.
When Ethene reacts with steam it produces Ethanol.
Positives Negatives
Made in a large chemical plant so can be Crude oil is not renewable so will eventually
made continuously and quickly.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

Uses of Esters
Used in Perfumes and to make flavourings and aromas and it's sweet-smelling.
Used to make Polyester plastic bottles (polyesters = polymers that contain the esters
functional group), these can be recycled to form polyester fibres to make polyester clothing
e.g. polyester fleeces.
In soap, long-chain carboxylic acids formed (due to the breakdown of fats and oils which are
types of esters) react with an alkali to form soap (acid + base = salt + water). How soap
1.…read more


No comments have yet been made

Similar Chemistry resources:

See all Chemistry resources »See all resources »