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Electrolysis

Moltensodiumchloride

Na+Cl-

Cathodeisnegative

Cathodeattractscationswhicharepositive

Cathodeiswherereductionoccurs(OILRIG=Reductionisgainofelectrons)

Anodeispositive

Attractsanionswhicharenegative

Anodeiswhereoxidationoccurs(Oxidation=lossofelectrons)

Electrolyte=ani onicsubstancethatconductselectricityeitherdissolvedinwateror
inam oltenform

Freeionsconductelectricity

Electronstakenfromtheanodearegivingtoionsatthecathode.

Sodiumiscollectedatthecathodeandisusedtostreetlampsandnuclearreactors.




SodiumChloridesolution

Notonlys odiumandchlorideformedasthewater(OH-andH+ions)alsotakespartin
thereaction.

Simplestionisdischargedattheanode(e.g.Cl-insteadofOH-orSO42-)

Anyi onl essr eactivethanh ydrogeni sdischargeda tthecathode( e.g.copper
dischargedi nsteado fhydrogena tt heanodei fc opperispresent)

So..att heanodeC l-isdischargedandatthecathodehydrogenisdischarged,leaving
NAOH(sodiumhydroxidetoform)

Inerte lectrodes=electrodesm adeo funreactivem aterialsodon'ttakepartinthe
reactiont hemselvese .g.g raphite.Thef ollowing…

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Electricity will pull electrons off the copper atoms to make them Cu2+ (cations). Those electrons will
travel to the cathode where they would discharge Cu2+ ions back into copper atoms adding to the
sheet of pure copper.

All the impurities will be dropped at the anode as sludge.

Electroplating=coating the…

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The Haber process= Nitrogen + Hydrogen ammonia (+ heat)

The Nitrogen is extracted from the air (air is 78% nitrogen)
Hydrogen is obtained from natural gas
Not all the Nitrogen and Hydrogen react together, the reaction has then reached a dynamic
equilibrium.

Conditions to make ammonia in the Harbour Process:…

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Alkanes = single bonds, saturated, formula = Cn H2n+2

Alkenes = double bonds, unsaturated, formula = Cn H2n

Alcohol:

Formula: Cn H2n+1 OH
Way of naming an alcohol is the same as an alkanes (propane, butane, peptane) however the
e is replaced with an ol e.g. methanol, ethanol, propanol
Methanol:…

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As a fuel:

1. Fermentation uses a renewable energy source (sugar beet and sugar cane) so we know we'll
never run out of plants to produce the ethanol from.
2. It's expensive to concentrate and purify the ethanol.

Ethanol produced from Ethene using steam

Ethene made by cracking crude oil…

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Uses of Esters

Used in Perfumes and to make flavourings and aromas and it's sweet-smelling.
Used to make Polyester plastic bottles (polyesters = polymers that contain the esters
functional group), these can be recycled to form polyester fibres to make polyester clothing
e.g. polyester fleeces.
In soap, long-chain carboxylic acids…

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