edexcel AS politics constitution notes

edexcel AS politics constitution notes

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  • Created on: 30-05-11 10:25
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Theconstitution
Constitution-S eto fr ulest oe stablishp owersa ndf unctions
ofi nstitutionso fg vt­s pecificallye xec,l eg,j udic­
secondf unctiont od efiner elationshipb etweeni ndividuala nd
state­e xtento fl iberty­c odified( USAw herec onb ecomes
sovereign)a ndu ncodified( UKw iths overeigntye lsewhere)­
federal( UK)a ndu nitary( USA)
Codifiedconstitution­o ftenr esulto fr evolutionaryc hange
1.A uthoritatives oc onstitutes" higherl aw"­h as
sovereigntya ndb indsg vti nstitutions­U SAc onm ore
powerfult hang vt­s ot wo-tierl egals ystem­c onl aws
highert hans tatutel aw
2.L awsa ndr ightse ntrenched­r igid-h ardt oa mend,
abolish,a dd­c omplexp rocedure­U SAp assedb y2 /3
congressa nd3 7/50s tatel egislatures­r etains
sovereignty,p rotectr ights
3.J udiciablea so utlinesg vtf unctionsi nt ermso f" higher
law"­a llp oliticalb odiess ubjectt oc ourts­
supreme/conc ourts­U SAs upremec ourtsd ecides
constitutionalityo fl aw
Uncodifiedconstitution­e volutionaryc hangei ns ociety­
hasv arietyofs ources
1.N ota uthoritative­c onl aws ames tatusa ss tatutel aw­
doesn'th aves ovs oc an'tb indg vti nstitutions­
single-tierl egals ystem­n o" higherl aw"­n o
con/supremec ourts
2.N ote ntrenched­f lexible­n os pecialp rocesst oa mend
­U Kp arls ov­n op arlc anb inds uccessors
3.N otj udiciable­l awso ra ctionso fp oliticalb odies
cannotb ed eclaredu nconstitutional
Unitaryc onstitution­s ovconcentratedi ns ingleb odyo r
nationalg vt­c ana bolish,strengthen,w eakeno ther
institutions­U Kp arlh astotals ov,d evolvedi nstitutions
haven one
Federalconstitution­d ivides ovb etweenc entrala nd
regionalgvt­b othh avep owerst hatt heo therc an'te ncroach
on­U SAstateg vth avep owerst od oc ertaint hings

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Sourcesoft heU Kc onstitution
1.Statutel aw­f ormal,w ritten,m adeb yp arl­o nlyo fc on
significancei fa ffectg vtp owerso rc itizenr ights­1 998
ScotlandA ct,H umanR ightsA ct­m osti mportants ourced ue
top rincipleo fp arls ov­s tatutel aww illa lwaysp revail
overo thers ources
2.Conventions­u nwritten,l ackd efinitionc laritya sa re
non-legal­n ol egalc onsequences­g vtn otl egally
requiredt or esigni fd efeatedi nm ajorg vtb ill­
generallyu pheldt oa voidi nstability­i fm onarchd id
grantl argestp artp owert urmoilw oulde nsue
3.…read more

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Parliamentisn'ts tills overeign
1.Devolution­p owerf ragmentation­r egiona utonomy­t akes
powerf romp arl­p arlh asn or ightt oi ntervenei n
devolvedi ssuesl ikeh ealth,e du­U Ks aidt ob e
quasi-federal­c ant echnicallya bolishd evb utd on'th ave
politicala utho rd eml egitd uet op opulars ovo fd ev­
alsoa greementt hatS cotlandc anl eaveU Ki fi tw ants
2.…read more

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Strengthsoft heU Kc onstitution
1.Flexibility­n os pecialp rocesst oa mend­U SAg un
ownership­U Kc onc ans tayu pt od ate­r espondt o
changings ocialc ircumstances­d evr espondedt or ising
nationalismi nW alesa ndS cotland­f lexibilityi sa
specifics trengthf orc hangingp owerb alancei ng vt
institutions­l esse ffectivei nr ightsp rotection
2.…read more

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­s omer eformst oh elpl iked eva ndc oalition
reducesP Md om­b utg vtc ant echnicallya bolishd ev
3.Weakr ightsp rotection­n othinge xcepte lectionst of orce
gvtt or espectc ivill ibs­e vens oe lectionse mpower
majoritiesn otm inorities­w orseb yu nwillingnesst o
writed ownr ightsl ikei nG ermanB asicR ights­H uman
RightsA ctm ader ightsm ored efendableb uts tilln ot
entrenched­n ol egals ubstance­4 2d ayd etention­
reflectsB ritishc ommonl awp reference­f reet od o
anythingu nlessp rohibited­i nfringemento fr ights
Forac odifiedc onstitution
1.…read more

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Piecemealr eforms­s olutionst oi ndividualp roblems­n o
greaterp lan­L or dsandd evl inkf ord evn ationst o
nd
receiver epi n2 c hambernote xamined­r eforml acked
goalc larity
3.Didn otg ett or oo tofd eeperp roblems­d idn'ta ddress
thingsl ikee lecti vedictatorship­d istant,u ncommitted­
showedu nwillingne sstog iveu pp ower­d isappointing
Constitutionalreformh asn otg onef are nough
1.…read more

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­d evinE nglandw ouldb eu ndema sr eferendumw as
defeated­P Ra lreadyf acilitatedm orer epf orm inorities
­m ayr ef­b utn os igno fP Ri nf uture…read more

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