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Topic 8 Processes

Reflex Arcs:

1. Receptors detect a stimulus and generate a nerve impulse.
2. Sensory neurones conduct a nerve impulse to the CNS along a sensory
pathway.
3. Sensory neurones enter the spinal cord through the dorsal route.
4. Sensory neurone forms a synapse with a relay neurone.…

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Propagation of an Impulse along an axon

1. At resting potential there is positive charge on the outside of the
membrane and negative charge on the inside, with higher sodium ion
concentration outside and high potassium ion concentration inside.

2. When stimulated, voltage-dependent sodium ion channels open, and
sodium ions…

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Visual Transduction: In the dark

1. Na+ diffuse in through open cation channels.

2. Na+ move down the concentration gradient.

3. Na+ is actively pumped out.

4. Membrane slightly depolarised -40mV.

5. Inhibitory neurotransmitter is released and binds to bipolar cell, preventing
it depolarising.

Visual Transduction: In the light

1.…

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Frontal Lobe

decision making

reasoning

planning

consciousness of emotions

forming associations and ideas




Parietal Lobe

orientation

movement

sensation

recognition

calculation

memory

Occipital Lobe

processing information from the eyes:

-vision

-colour

-shape

-recognition

-perspective



Temporal Lobe

processing auditory information

-hearing

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-sound

-recognition

-speech

memory

Cerebral Hemispheres

See

Think

Learn

Emotions




Hypothalamus

Thermoregulation

Sleep

Hunger

Thirst

Blood concentration

Cerebellum

coordinate movement

balance

checks motor programme

Medulla oblongata

control of heartbeat

breathing

blood pressure

Thalamus

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sensory information

Hippocampus

Laying down long term memory

Basal Ganglia

Selecting and initiating stored programmes for movement

Mid Brain

relays information to the cerebral hemispheres.

auditory information to temporal lobe.

visual information to occipital lobe.

Habituation

1. With repeated stimulation, Ca+ channels become less responsive so less
Ca2+ crosses the…

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6. Cells multiply in fermenter.

7. Produce human insulin.

8. Insulin protein extracted and purified.

9. Bacterial cells destroyed.

Genetically Modified Plants

1. Plasmid carrying the desired gene and an antibiotic resistance gene
(marker gene) is used.

2. DNA gun or insertion of a new gene of virus DNA used…

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