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eating behaviour;
There are a number of physiological processes that influence when and what we eat.
However, as in many aspects of human behaviour, the effects of these physiological processes are
mediated by psychological and social ones.
Many different things motivate us in:
- what we choose to eat.
-when we eat.
- how much we eat including convenience,
-what it looks like
- health concern
- ethics.
In other words, our attitudes.
EXPECTANCY THEORY;
Expectancy theory explains how decisions may be made in different situations and can be applied
to eating behaviour.
The evaluation of any situation or object comprises of two factors:
-the perceived likelihood that the object has certain attributes or may lead to certain outcomes.
-the value attached has these outcomes (positive or negative).
-each attribute/outcome will affect your evaluation of what to eat (e.g. an attribute may be home
made/bought or high/low calories).
If this theory is true then when we are given a choice between two foods, we should choose the
one with the most desirable attributes or outcomes (Conner & Armitage, 2002).

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Parents, usually the mother, provide food for the child. Therefore, it is obvious that the mother's attitude to
food will affect the child's preferences. If the mother is concerned over health aspects of food she will work
harder to make sure her child has a balanced diet. If the mother is less aware or less concerned over health
issues such as obesity, she will take less care over the child's diet.…read more

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Eating concerns more prevalent with western women compared to eastern.
Body dissatisfaction and eating disorders become more prevalent as wealth/class
demographically increases.
Food choice takes place within a network of social meanings (Ogden, 2003). Eating behaviour
cannot be reduced to the biopsychology of the individual choice of foods & eating behaviours also
rely on social communication, individual identity, particularly cultural identity.
-for example, the forbidding of foods in certain religions- beef. Fasting is also popular in some
cultures.…read more

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Three sources to model eating from:
-parents.
-peers.
-media.
Social learning theory explains eating behaviour by suggesting that a child will copy or is influenced
by figures that appear important or authoritative to the child. At a young age children become
influenced by parents in terms of what they eat & when they eat. A model provided by parents is the
only one available. Peers become a next port of call when children want to become more popular &
therefore mimic their behaviour.…read more

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According to Ogden (2007) these factors include:
1) Media influence- media images have become slimmer over the past 50 years.
2) Family- relationship between mother and daughter- body dissatisfaction and dieting.
3) Ethnicity- mixed evidence, however research does suggest eating disorders are proportional to
exposure of Western Media.
4) Social class- eating disorders seem more prevalent among the higher classes (& social groups).
Some women do lose weight and maintain that weight loss.…read more

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Herman & Mack (1975);
This was one of the earliest studies using the preload test method. The participants were 45 female
students. They were told it was a study on taste experiences.
Method;
-This was an independent design with 15 participants in each of the conditions.
- The first group received no preload.
- The second group were given one milkshake as a preload.
-The third group were given two milkshakes as a preload.…read more

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A final point is that no account was taken for individual differences. Group sizes were quite small (especially
after the division of high and low participants). Some participants may have liked the ice cream more or less
than others. Although there were different varieties provided to try to deal with this, it is still possible that
dislike of ice cream may have biased the results.…read more

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However, studies have shown that when instructed not to think
about something we usually think about it more. It has been demonstrated using thoughts about
sex, mood and white bears (Ogden, 2007). Restrained eaters may therefore overeat as a rebound
effect from trying to suppress thoughts about food.
Restrained eating is associated with lowered and depressed mood. In addition, depression is linked
to low self esteem. So the restrained eaters have increased motivation to eat.…read more

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It is so hard to lose weight by dieting that many people turn to the use of drugs and surgery instead. Given
the widespread desire to lose weight, especially amongst women, this is an extremely lucrative market for
drug companies and there are several compounds on the market.
Orlistat: this drug prevents the absorption of fat from the intestine so that it is excreted rather than
processed into fatty tissue.…read more

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Humans, along with all mammals are homeostatic animals. The term homeostasis is technically defined as
`the maintenance of a constant internal environment'. This means that we try to keep our body's
physiological consistent within narrow limits. The best example is body temperature which is regulated at
98.6degrees. if it falls we generate heat through activity or wearing warmer clothes, and if it rises we lose
heat through perspiration or wearing less. Our body is designed to operate at 98.…read more

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