Eating Behaviour

  • Factors Affecting Attitude to Food
  • Explanations for the Success and Failure of Dieting
  • Neural Mechanisms in Eating and Satiation
  • Evolutionary Explanations for Food Preference
  • Biological Explanations of Anorexia Nervosa
  • Psychological Explanations of Anorexia Nervosa
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  • Created on: 09-05-11 15:07
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Factors Affecting Attitude to Food


Relationship A01

There is a well documented link between food (particularly unhealthy food)
and positive mood.

Hunger is associated with an increase in arousal and irritability.

After eating we feel calm, sleepy and have mostly pleasurable feelings.

Garg et al: Popcorn Research…

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Opiate Hypothesis A02

Eating > stimulates opiate neurotransmitters > causes feelings of
pleasure and pain reduction

Food stimulates opiate neurotransmitters in the brain

These opiate neurotransmitters include enkephalin and beta-endorphin.

They are involved in feeling pleasure and pain reduction.

This explains why food has a positive effect on mood.


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Parental modelling A02

Brown and Odgen (2004) suggest that children observe and replicate their
parents eating behaviour

They found consistent correlations between parents and their children in
terms of snack food intake eating motivations and body dissatisfaction

Media effects A02

MacIntrye et al found that the media (e.g. the television…

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Procedure: One group of dieters were given a low calorie food (e.g. fruit) and
then a standard food (e.g. ice cream). A separate group of dieters were given
a high calorie food (e.g. chocolate) and then the same standard food. The
experiment was repeated with non-dieters.

Findings: Dieters ate more…

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Rather than referring to lunch as `salad' every day, a person should focus on
the details, e.g. the ingredients within the salad.

Varying these `details' will increase the likelihood of a successful diet.

Jelly Bean Research (Redden) A02

Procedure: 135 people were given 22 jelly beans one at a time.…

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These signals activate the lateral hypothalamus (LH) which causes feelings of
hunger and consequently eating begins.

Eating causes signals of food intake including a rise in blood glucose and a
decrease in ghrelin release.

These signals activate the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) which causes
satiation (feeling of fullness).

The role of…

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Injections of ghrelin increase food intake and body weight in animals and
humans (Cummings, 2006)

Gastric bands reduce ghrelin secretion which reduces hunger and thereby aids
weight loss.

Blood Test Research: Cummings et al (2004)

Procedure: Six participants were given lunch, then ghrelin levels were
monitored from blood samples taken…

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Important to detect salt as high sodium concentrations needed to maintain
the body's nerve and muscle activity and water balance (Fisser, 2003)

However too much salt can be dangerous for humans as it can cause high
blood pressure, increase the risk of heart problems.

Therefore salt taste receptors are needed…

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In the EEA, foods that were bitter / sour were generally poisonous and
therefore it was important to avoid them.

The ability to distinguish better tastes is developed as an evolutionary
mechanism to protect early humans from eating poisonous plants.

Herbivores have fewer bitter taste genes than omnivores or carnivores…

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Findings: In the women recovering from anorexia nervosa, there was over
activity in the dopamine receptors.

Conclusion: Increased dopamine activity appears to alter the way people
interpret rewards. Individuals with anorexia nervosa do not associate pleasure
with food (as most people do). This supports the theory that increased
dopamine activity…




you are very wrong, sad mood people eat more

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