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Light travels down an optical fibre by
TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION.
This is where light hits the inside of the
glass at an angle greater than the
CRITICLE ANGLE.…read more

Slide 3

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The critical angle for glass is around 42°.
Total internal reflection is used in optical fibres to
transmit pulses of light.
They are used in telecommunications to transmit
telephone conversations and data - including this
web page to your computer!
Whilst traditional copper wires can be used (and
indeed are for the first 500 m or so from your
phone) they cannot carry as much information and
suffer from magnetic interference.…read more

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Seismic waves
P waves- primary, get there first
Pushing and pulling waves-longitudinal
Travels through solids and liquids
S waves- secondary move more slowly
Sidewase and shakey waves-
transverse.
Travel through solids not liquids…read more

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There are four kinds of waves produced
by an earthquake. Two move over the
surface, causing damage, and two pass
through the Earth itself - called body
waves.
By studying body waves, scientists
worked out what the Earth is like inside:…read more

Slide 6

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Both S and P waves travel throughout
the body of the earth, and can be picked
up by seismometers - machines that
record earthquakes - anywhere in the
world.
However, it turns out that S waves
cannot travel through the core, and only
P waves are recorded in some places:…read more

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