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Key Facts
The universe is 14,000 million years old
The universe possibly started with a big
bang and has been expanding ever since
Our Solar system formed 5,000 million years
ago from dust and gas of old stars
The sun is a ball of extremely hot gas, it's
diameter is 109 times larger than the Earth's
A galaxy is a huge group of stars. Our solar
system belongs to the Milky Way galaxy.…read more

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Earth Crust
Only 10-40km
Extends half
way to it's
Made mainly of
Solid at the
centre, liquid
above…read more

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Rocks tell Stories!
Deeper layers are older layers, younger rocks
are usually on top
Fossils in the layers show which species lived
when. Many species have become extinct.
Cross-cutting features- if one type of rock cuts
across another rock type, it is younger e.g. hot
magma can fill cracks in existing rocks and solidify
as new rock.
These clues only tell us which rocks are older than others,
not how old the rocks actually are.
Some rocks are radioactive, scientists can estimate their
age by measuring the radiation given off. This is called
radioactive dating.…read more

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Rock Cycle
Transportation What do each of these
Deposition of sediment processes mean?
Compaction and cementation
There must be movement under the Earth's
surface that changes rocks and lifts land up
to build new mountains.
Otherwise, erosion would wear the
continents flat!
Also, the Earth must be older than the
oldest rocks found here.…read more

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Mountains, Volcanoes and
When 2 plates collide, they crumple up
forming mountains.
A volcano is a vent in the Earth's
surface that erupts magma.
Earthquakes occur when 2 plates slide
past each other causing rocks to
break.…read more

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