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DNA Technology




DNA Technology
DNA Technology

Gene Technology

Genetic Engineering

Genetic modification



Genetically Modified Organism (GMO): An organism that has had its DNA altered by recombinant
DNA technology

Recombinant DNA: A piece of DNA that is made of DNA from more than one species


Producing Genetically Modified Organisms


1) Isolation…

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DNA Technology




2) Insertion (In Vivo)
The DNA must be inserted into a vector to be transferred to the host cell. The vector is cut open
using the same restriction endonuclease as used to isolate the DNA fragment. This means that the
sticky ends of the DNA fragment and the…

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DNA Technology




4) Identification
Not all cells will contain plasmids with recombinant DNA because:

Not all bacterial cells take up a plasmid
Some plasmids close up again without taking up the DNA fragments as the sticky ends are
complementary

Cells containing plasmids with recombinant DNA can be identified using gene…

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DNA Technology




5) Cloning (In Vivo)
Once cells containing the DNA fragment are identified they are cloned to produce multiple copies
with the recombinant DNA. Bacteria can be easily cloned in a fermenter with starch and heat, and
these clones will quickly and cheaply produce the desired protein such as…

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DNA Technology




3) Strand Synthesis

The solution is heated to 70C. Thermostable DNA polymerase catalyses the formation of
phosphodiester bonds between nucleotides to form a complementary DNA strand, and thereby give
two identical double stranded DNA strands.

4) Repetition

The process is repeated, each time doubling the amount of DNA,…

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DNA Technology




Gene Therapy using a harmless adenovirus

The CFTR gene is isolated using a restriction endonuclease and
inserted into a harmless adenovirus (type of virus that causes coughs
and colds). The adenovirus is then inhaled by the patient, and injects
its DNA into the epithelial cells of the lungs.…

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DNA Technology




Locating and Sequencing Genes


DNA Probes
A DNA probe is a short, single stranded section of DNA that has been labelled either with
radioactivity (³²P that produces dark bands when exposed to photographic film) or fluorescent
proteins (that fluoresce in UV light), used to locate a particular gene.…

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DNA Technology




Gel Electrophoresis

All the fragments in each test tube end with the same base. Fragments are loaded into a well at one
end of the agar gel and a potential difference is applied. The phosphate group in DNA gives it a
negative charge, therefore the wells are placed…

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