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  • Created on: 08-12-13 17:44
Preview of DNA

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What are Chromosomes?
They are thread-like structures found in the nucleus of the cell which carries
the genetic information.
What are Chromosomes made from?
They are made from DNA.
What are sections of the DNA called?
They are called Genes.
Genes contain the instructions for specific
proteins that are used in your body.
So basically, genes carry
the instructions for the

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proteins that control chemical processes in your body.
Two strands in a molecule of DNA are coiled together to
form a spiral known as the "Double Helix".
The two strands are linked together at regular intervals by
chemicals called "Bases".
The bases are joined
joined together by
weak hydrogen
bonds.…read more

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1.) DNA replication begins with the hydrogen bonds between the
complementary base pairs breaking. The helix unzips, forming two
single strands.
2.) One strand is used as a template. Bases that are complementary
to this strand link together opposite it by an enzyme (called DNA
polymerase), forming new hydrogen bonds between the bases.
3.) Each new DNA molecule contains one strand from the original DNA
molecule and one new strand.…read more

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Protein Synthesis takes place in two stages:
This is basically DNA Replication.
"...Each new DNA molecule contains one strand from the original DNA
molecule and one new strand."
From there, a new molecule is made called messenger RNA (mRNA).
In the cytoplasm, the mRNA attaches to a small structure called the
`ribosome'.…read more

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The ribosome moves from one end of the mRNA to the other,
decoding the bases into groups of three known as `base triplets'
or `codons'.
Each amino acid is attached to a transfer RNA (tRNA) molecule, and
each tRNA molecule has a triplet of bases (or codons).
The triplet of bases control which amino acid is attached.
As the ribosome moves closer to the next codon on the mRNA, the
tRNA with its complementary base pairs line up with the next
codon.…read more


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