Revision notes on DNA and RNA (Biochemistry module) for A2 Chemistry.

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DNA is made up of 3 compounds
Bases ­ 4 different structures like all
bases these are proton acceptors
Adenine (A)
Guanine (G)
Thymine (T)
Cytosine (C)
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A helical spiral is formed
Two chains formed
Base pairing in the centre of the spiral
Bases held together by Hydrogen bonds
o A =T
o G C
One strand runs from 3' to 5'
the other strand runs from 5' to 3'
DNA synthesis
In order to make DNA you need
Primer DNA
DNA polymerase
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­ Free nucleotides
(Sugar + Phosphate + Base)
o Present as their triphosphates
to provide energy for synthesis
Two identical double strands each
has half the parent strand
Semi-Conservative Replication ­
Half the DNA in the second generation
has come directly from the first generation
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RNA ­ Ribonucleic Acid
Similarities of DNA and RNA
Same phosphate
Same 3'5' Phospho-diester
Base joins onto C 1'
Differences of DNA and RNA
DNA - No oxygen present on C 2'
RNA - Oxygen present on C 2'
There is no Thymine in RNA, you find Uracil (U) a different base instead
DNA - G C / A=T
RNA - G C / A=U
RNA is mainly single stranded
RNA is much smaller than DNA
RNA synthesis
This is done y the process of…read more

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Transcription ­ DNA RNA
Translation ­ Bases Amino Acids
Degenerate ­ More than 1 triplet codes for the same Amino Acid
Triplet code ­ A set of 3 bases codes for an Amino Acid
There are 3 types of RNA
1) rRNA ­ Ribosomal RNA
These are the sites of protein synthesis
2) mRNA ­ Messenger RNA
Copied from the DNA gene it is then translated into the primary sequence of a
polypeptide chain
3) tRNA ­ Transfer RNA
These Transport Amino Acids to…read more


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