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DNA is made up of 3 compounds



Bases ­ 4 different structures like all
bases these are proton acceptors

Adenine (A)
Guanine (G)
Thymine (T)
Cytosine (C)

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Page 2

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1 nucleotide =
1 sugar + 1 phosphate + 1 base

A helical spiral is formed
Two chains formed
Base pairing in the centre of the spiral
Bases held together by Hydrogen bonds
o A =T
o G C

One strand runs from 3' to 5'
the other strand runs…

Page 3

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monomers ­ Free nucleotides
(Sugar + Phosphate + Base)
o Present as their triphosphates
to provide energy for synthesis
Two identical double strands each
has half the parent strand
Semi-Conservative Replication ­
Half the DNA in the second generation
has come directly from the first generation…

Page 4

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RNA ­ Ribonucleic Acid

Similarities of DNA and RNA
Same phosphate
Same 3'5' Phospho-diester
Base joins onto C 1'

Differences of DNA and RNA
DNA - No oxygen present on C 2'
RNA - Oxygen present on C 2'

There is no Thymine in RNA, you find Uracil (U) a…

Page 5

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Transcription ­ DNA RNA
Translation ­ Bases Amino Acids
Degenerate ­ More than 1 triplet codes for the same Amino Acid
Triplet code ­ A set of 3 bases codes for an Amino Acid

There are 3 types of RNA

1) rRNA ­ Ribosomal RNA
These are the sites…


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