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Slide 1

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LUNG CANCER
· Cigarette smoke contains CARCINOGENS e.g.
tar
· These cause DNA in lung cells to mutate
· They can then grow and divide out of control
and form a MALIGNANT TUMOUR
· These can block BRONCHIOLES, so less GAS
EXCHANGE occurs
· Shortness of breath and weight loss follow…read more

Slide 2

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CHRONIC BRONCHITIS
· Cigarette smoke DAMAGES CILIA and causes
goblet cells to produce more MUCUS
· Mucus then accumulates in lungs, leading to
EXCESSIVE COUGHING to get rid of it
· Causes INFLAMMATION of the lungs because
bacteria can multiply in the mucus and cause
infections.…read more

Slide 3

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EMPHYSEMA
· Cigarette smoke causes INFLAMMATION OF
ALVEOLI
· This encourages phagocytes to the area
· They produce an enzyme that breaks down
ELASTIN in the alveoli walls, destroying the
alveoli, as they do not expand or recoil, so the
pressure changes cause them to burst.
· Less surface area for GAS EXCHANGE,
SHORTNESS OF BREATH…read more

Slide 4

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ATHEROSCLEROSIS
· CARBON MONOXIDE damages ENDOTHELIUM
of arteries
· White blood cells are attracted to repair the
damage, encouraging the growth of smooth
muscle and causing lipids and cholesterol to
build up inside artery wall
· This deposit is called an ATHEROMA
· When it bulges out into the lumen it can be
called a PLAQUE
· This narrows the arteries causing high blood…read more

Slide 5

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CORONARY HEART DISEASE
· When the CORNARY ARTERIES become
narrowed/blocked due to
plaques/atheromas/blood clots.
· This restricts blood flow to the heart, so it
receives less oxygen
· ANGINA ­ When arteries have been narrowed
due to atherosclerosis occurring, chest pains.
· HEART ATTACK ­ Blood clot in coronary artery
causes part of the heart muscle to die.
· HEART FAILURE ­ When a coronary artery
becomes completely blocked, so the heart has
no oxygen and cannot function.…read more

Slide 6

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STROKE
· Rapid LOSS OF BRAIN FUNCTION due to lack of
oxygen received because of disruption of
blood flow to the brain
· Caused by BLOOD CLOT in artery leading to
the brain
· Caused by a HAEMORRHAGE ­ an artery
leading to the brain bursts.…read more

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