First 497 words of the document:
Discuss the effects of institutionalisation
Firstly, one study into the effects of institutionalisation was the research
conducted by Spitz into the effects of privation in orphanages in South America
during 1946 to 1952. Spitz found that most children there suffered from
anadictic depression which is characterised by sadness, weepiness, sleep problems,
refusing to eat and drink and apprehension. As a result of this one third of the
children died before their first birthday despite good diets and medical care.
Secondly, the study into the effects of institutionalisation by Hodges and Tizard
found that privation can be caused by policies in orphanages when nurses are told
not to form any attachment to the children. This results in children who had the
weakest attachment when restored to their families becoming most quarrelsome,
the most likely to be bullied and the least able to make friends and keep friends
compared to children who were adopted and had good levels of emotional care.
Thirdly, a study done by Widdowson found that emotional care was more
important than physical care when a child grows. The children in a particular
orphanage were looked after by a supervisor who was cruel and so many children
developed deprivation dwarfism making them physically undeveloped; when the
supervisor was changed for the better the children started making improvements
in their growth.
The Spitz research helps to show the effects of institutionalisation as it shows
good levels of ecological validity because it looked at real orphans in a real
orphanage so these results from this research could be applied to real life
situations as it really happened. However, as the research was conducted between
1946 and 1952, care in orphanages may have changed and improved since then
meaning the results are out of date and not valid anyone when applied to today.
The research done by Hodges and Tizard may not show the effects of
institutionalisation, due to it being a longitudinal study and therefore suffering
from attrition. This means that some of the participants dropped out of the
experiment over time. This means that it could have affected those who dropped
out more than those who stayed. This means that the final sample of participants is
biased and the results could underestimate the effects of privation. Also, this
study was a natural experiment, so those who were adopted may have been more
resistant to the effects of privation than those who were restored. Therefore we
cannot be certain that warm loving foster care was the cause for the
improvements seen in the future.
Finally, the Widdowson study had strong levels of internal validity, as the
conclusions that emotional care can effect growth is valid as all other variables
were accounted for such as physical variables like a change in diet. However, this