unit 12 - health and social care - human physiology and anatomy - digestion

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  • Created on: 14-06-10 13:07
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This is the break down of food into smaller molecules which can be absorbed by the cells in the body
and get used up.
Digestion begins in the mouth. This is where the teeth grind the food to reduce the size so that it can
be swallowed easily. This is also known as the mechanical process of digestion and it is voluntary
action. In the mouth, the saliva which is produced by the salivary glands mix with the food to further
break it down and make it moist to allow it down the oesophagus easily. This is also known as
chemical digestion. Enzymes are biological catalyst that speeds up chemical reaction.
This is the tube where the bolus (food) passes through to get to the stomach. Peristalsis takes place
here. This is the contraction and relaxation of the oesophagus.
The stomach contracts and relaxes squeezing food mixing it with gastric juices produced in the gastric
pit in the stomach. Some of the juices include hydrochloric acid, pepsinogen and enzymes. It has a Ph
of 2. The hydrochloric acid helps to kill harmful bacteria and germs. The food the turns liquid which is
then passed into the duodenum .
Small intestine
This is where digestive juices get added from the pancreas and the gall bladder for further digestion.
Bile is added from the gall bladder ­ this helps to break down fat in the food. The bile is produced in
the liver. Nutrients are absorbed into the blood stream through the walls of the small intestine.
Large intestine
The food that has not been absorbed such as fibre and water come here. Water is then reabsorbed
in this section. The undigested food such as fibre is then stored as faeces in the rectum and excreted
through the anus.
A dysfunction of digestive system
Peptic/ gastric ulcer - This is the break down of the lining of the stomach.
Symptoms ­ burning pain in stomach, feeling sick, regurgitating food, heartburn
Causes ­ infection by H.pyloric bacteria, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) e.g aspirin.
Treatment ­ Eradication therapy (Eradication therapy involves taking a combination of three different
antibiotics.) Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) - Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) work by blocking the actions
of proteins called proton pumps, which are partially responsible for producing stomach acid.
Diagnoses ­ endoscopy (tube put into the stomach to look at the stomach walls), tissue sample from
stomach for test

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