Diet and nutrition revision notes

Everything you need to know for the diet and nutrition section, with a little humour thrown in

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  • Created by: Abby
  • Created on: 02-05-13 19:47
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A balanced diet is one that contains all the
nutrients required for health and growth:

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Carbohydrates and fats for energy
Proteins for growth and repair
Fibre for the digestive system
Vitamins and minerals
Malnutrition is caused by an unbalanced diet,
either deficient or excessive.…read more

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Obesity is when a person's body weight is or is
above 20% more than the recommended
weight for their height.
Obesity is caused when the energy intake is higher than the
amount required, which will vary depending on a person's size
and activity level.…read more

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Atherosclerosis is when fatty substances are deposited in the
walls of the coronary arteries, narrowing the lumen and
therefore restricting blood flow to the heart and causing
oxygen starvation.
Too much salt hypertension
atherosclerosis CHD
Excessive amounts of salt in the diet increases the water
potential of the blood too much water is held in the blood
blood pressure gets too high hypertension atherosclerosis
CHD Boom.…read more

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Cholesterol is found in saturated fats in meat, eggs and dairy
and is made in the liver from sat fats
High blood cholesterol concentrations have been linked to
45-47% of deaths from CHD.
Cholesterol is transported around the body in the form of
lipoproteins.…read more

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Plants are the basis of all
food chains
1. Plants photosynthesise and convert light
energy into chemical energy
2. Herbivores eat plants and the energy
moves along the food chain
3. Carnivores eat herbivores and the
energy again moves along the food chain
4.…read more

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There were no food chain jokes, so here's a (fast) food chain
Selective breeding = high
crop yields and disease and
pest resistance
1. Two plants displaying the desired
characteristics are allowed to reproduce
2. The offspring are sorted and again those
displaying the desired characteristics are
allowed to reproduce
3. Repeat for several generations
4.…read more

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Selective breeding =
domestic animals with
high productivity
Selective breeding is carried out just like with plants
Chickens selectively bred to lay eggs can lay 300+ eggs a year,
compared to unselected chickens which lay about 30.…read more

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Fungicides can be sprayed onto crops to reduce fungal growth
Antibiotics can treat infected animals to stop
disease spreading to other animals
If the disease is treated with antibiotics in an animal it not only
saves that animal but reduces the risk of the disease spreading
to any other animals farmed nearby
The disease could have reduced growth rate or impaired
reproduction and therefore reduced food production but
treatment with antibiotics should prevent this…read more

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Using microorganism to
make food for humans:
Advantages Disadvantages
Source of protein that is suitable It doesn't have the taste/texture
for vegetarians of traditional protein
Single-celled protein production Consumers may not want to eat
can be combined with removal of fungal protein which has been
waste products grown on waste
No animal fats or cholesterol The growing conditions are
which can cause health issues perfect for pathogens so care
must be taken in growing
process to prevent infection
Production can be increased or The protein…read more


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