Devices used in text (helpful when analysing/annotating)

A list of techniques/devices used in text and poetry - includes descriptions.

useful whn annotating poetry or articles and analysing pieces of text :)

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  • Created by: Rosie
  • Created on: 30-05-10 11:56
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Simile ­ when you say something is like something else.
Metaphor ­ when you say something is something else.
Dramatic irony ­ when the audience knows something that the characters
Euphemism ­ a way to soften language.
Synecdoche ­ when a part is used to represent a whole (e.g. England lost
20. what you mean is the English team lost 20).
Litote ­ an understatement
Hyperbole ­ an exaggeration.
Iambic pentameter ­ the rhythm the words form in each line.
Assonance ­ stressing of the vowel sounds.
Sibilance ­ the stressing of the`s' sounds.
Consonance ­ stressing/repetition of the consonants.
Alliteration ­ repetition of the initial letters.
Onomatopoeia ­ A word that sounds like how you say it.
Homonym ­ same sound different meaning.
Synonym ­ sounds different, means the same.
Juxtaposition ­ a contradiction used to contrast two things (e.g. he liked
coffee, she liked tea).
Transferred epithet ­ when the meaning is put on to something else.
Oxymoron ­ two contrasting words put together to make a new meaning (e.g.
bitter sweet or love hate).
Personification ­ giving an object a living quality.
Tone ­ the light in which the text is written, light or dark tone.
Sentence structure ­ how the sentence is shaped.
Punctuation ­ everything in text that is not a letter or number (e.g. ! ? ( ) ).
Structure/discourse ­ the way in which the text is put together.
Narrative voice ­ who's the narrator? 1st, 2nd, 3rd person.
Phonological devices

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Short or long vowel sounds
Sentence structure
long, short, complex, simple, minor, compound
passive voice
Narrative voice
Chronological, flashbacks, preambles, postscripts, tense shifts, chapters
Repetition of phrases
Word choice
Short, blunt words
Elevated lexis (posh words)
Verb choice
Adjectives…read more


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