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Developmental Psychology
Attachment
An attachment is an emotional bond between two people. It is a two-way process that endures over time.
It leads to certain behaviours such as clinging and proximity-seeking, and serves the function of protecting
an infant.

Learning Theory
Dollard & Miller (1949)
Attachment is a set of…

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Evaluation ­ Strengths
Lorenz showed imprinting is innate in animas so same could apply to human babies
Hodges and Tizard support the sensitive period. They found children who had formed no
attachments had difficulties with peers later in life
Tronick studied the Efe tribe in Zaire and supports the idea…

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Findings:
Van Ijzendoorn (1999) conducted a meta analysis of 80 studies and found there are actually 4
attachment types:
1. Secure attachment ­ 60%
2. Insecure avoidant ­ 15%
3. Insecure resistant ­ 10%
4. Insecure disorganised ­ 15%
Validity
Main & Weston claimed attachments test the nature of a…

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Findings:



Factors influencing attachment type
Sensitivity: Ainsworth developed the maternal sensitivity scale to rate mothers' behaviour
towards their infants and found:
1. Mothers of securely attached infants were more sensitive, accepting, cooperative &
accessible.
2. Mothers of insecurely attached infants were more unresponsive to crying & less
affectionate.
3. Mothers…

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Findings:
They found small inter-cultural differences (secure attachment most common). Then insecure
avoidant (apart from in Japan and Israel). Found 1.5 times greater intra-cultural differences than
inter-cultural differences.
Conclusions:
1. The most common type is the secure type. This means it is the `best' for the healthy social
and emotional…

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Bifulco showed that negative effects of deprivation may only surface if there are `triggers' later
on in life. (study with 249 women- lost mothers before 17-twice as much rates of depression and
anxiety disorders).
Robertson's Case Studies
Robertson studied Little John who was looked after in a residential nursery for…

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Turner and Lloyd (1995) claim that damage only occurs when there are multiple risk factors such as
privation and subsequent bad care, or insecure attachment and early separations and parental
disharmony.
With regards to the studies we cannot say if the children studied had failed to form attachments.
Also, we…

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NICHD data showed mother's sensitivity was more important than hours in childcare in problem
behaviours.
Belsky claims other factors at home are more important than hours spent in day care for problem
behaviours.
Dingfelder claim the findings are causal (day-care and aggression are linked but we don't know
how, as…

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2. Low child-to-staff ratios (3:1)
3. Minimal staff turnover
4. Sensitive emotional care
5. Qualified staff
Availability of high-quality day care is monitored in the UK. It has to meet legal standards:
1. Minimum staffing rations in relation to age of children
2. Minimum levels of qualification
3. Ofsted inspections…

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