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Psychology Unit 1
Development of Personality…read more

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Our personality is all of the things that make us unique: Our thoughts, feelings,
and our behaviours.
Temperament is said to be the aspects of our personality that are innate (we're
born with). A key study into temperament was conducted by Thomas et al.
Aim¬ To see whether the way we respond to our environment stays Evaluation Points
the same throughout our lives. ¬It was a longitudinal study, which means
Method¬ 133 participants were picked for the study and their that extraneous variables could have
behaviours were observed from when they were babies up until they effected how the children responded to
things. Despite this, longitudinal studies
were young adults. The parents of the participants were interviewed
often gather accurate and detailed results
about the child's routine and their reaction to change. ¬All of the participants were children from
Results¬ The study showed that there were three different types of middle class families, which means that the
change. "Easy": flexible and regular behaviours. "Difficult": samples wasn't a fair representation of
demanding and inflexible behaviours. "Slow to Warm Up": didn't like everyone in the target audience.
change but adapted to it well. ¬When the parents were interviewed that
Conclusion¬ They concluded that temperament is innate because the could've been biased about the behaviours
ways of responding stayed the same as the children got older. of their children…read more

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Other Temperament Studies
Boss and Plomin conducted an experiment on identical and non-identical twins to see if
temperament is innate.
Aim¬ To see if temperament is innate (inherited)
Method¬ Identical and non-identical twins were gathered for this experiment. When they were 5, there
behaviours were measured emotionally, they measured their sociability and measured their activity.
Results¬ There was a closer relationship between the results of the identical twins than the results of the
non-identical twins.
Conclusion¬ Temperance is partially based on genetics.
Evaluation Points
¬The study supports the idea that temperament is innate
¬The temperament of the twins may have been the same because twins are generally treated the same
and go through the same experiences
¬The results may be hard to generalise to non-twins…read more

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Other Temperament Studies
Kagen and Snidman also conducted a study to see if temperament is genetic.
Aim¬ To see if temperament is due to biological differences.
Method¬ Toddlers were placed into car seats. For 3 minutes, the babies were near their caregiver. They
were then placed in their seats next to a stranger. Their reactions to the stranger was observed.
Results¬ 20% of the babies showed distress (eg starting crying). 40% of the babies showed little interest,
and another 40% were in-between these two reactions.
Conclusion¬ Temperament is due to biological differences..
Evaluation Points
¬500 babies were used in the experiment, which means that he got a wide and
accurate range of results
¬It was a laboratory experiment which means that variables could be controlled by the
¬The experiment has low ecological validity because it was done in an artificial setting.…read more

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How Personality is Measured
Eysenk came up with the Type theory of Personality. He said that there are different
types of personality, and that for each type there are associated traits. Some of the
personality types that he identified include extroversion, introversion and neuroticism.
An extrovert is someone that enjoys company and constant activity.
An introvert is someone that likes being alone and enjoys peace.
A neurotic is someone that's highly emotional and shows quick and intense reactions.
Common traits of each of these personality types include:
Extrovert Introvert Neurotic
Impulsive Content with Loneliness Anxious
Confident Patient Perfectionist
Inconsiderate Reserved Obsessive
Loud Dedicated Prone to depression…read more

Slide 6

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Eysenks Study
He conducted an experiment to find out about different personalities.
Aim¬ Wanted to investigate personalities.
Method¬ 700 servicemen completed a questionnaire for this investigation. Their answers were analysed
using factor analysis.
Results¬ Two personality dimensions were identified. Extroversion-Introversion and neuroticism-Stability.
Most people lie in the middle of these dimensions.
Conclusion¬ Everybody's personalities can be placed along these two dimensions.
Evaluation Points
¬Only servicemen were used in the study, which isn't a fair representation of the
target population, which means that the results cannot be generalised to everybody
because other people may act differently.
¬They were asked to complete the questionnaires themselves, and they could have
changed their answers to try to please the researcher
¬The mood of the servicemen could have effected how they completed the
questionnaire…read more

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