Development notes for aqa spec A including case studies

I have made these for my personal use for the geography exam on the 18th july 2012 but thought seen as i had taken all the time to make them i might as well share them :) I'm aiming for an A* so these contain all the details needed to get that , hope they help and good luck **

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  • Created by: elinor
  • Created on: 09-06-12 15:05
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Development gap
Bhutan is only country with Gross national happiness as its aim for development ­ instead of wanting
to become rich, rulers want people to be happy, look after environment and heritage and culture.
Define development
"The three essentials of development include the ability to lead a long and healthy life, to
acquire knowledge and have a decent standard of living" (United Nations Development
Although social and economic factors affect standard of living, there are differences in opinion of
their relative importance
"Development involves political, social and economic freedom and opportunities for being
creative and productive" (United Nations Development Programme)
This idea is based on a western style democracy and it is difficult to measure freedom and
opportunity so these are often ignored when measures of development are analysed.
Traditional ways of dividing the word
Over the last 30 years the world has become richer but the gap between richest 1/3 and poorest
2/3 has also grown larger, according to the size of its gross national product.
GNP- gross national product- the total value of goods and services produced by a country in 1 year.
Doesn't take into account some business taxes. Measures in US dollars.
North America, Europe and Japan have 75% of the world's GNP
China's share is growing quickly. In 2004 its GNP was 4th in the world standing at $2600
A country's GNP is not an accurate indicator of its people's wealth e.g. 2006 UK's GNP was
close to China however on average population was much worse off.
Better way is:
Gross National Income per capita (person) -average income of people in a country (US $)
Although this gives a better idea it is not perfect as there are still great inequalities between
different parts of the world.
History of dividing development
Earlier method was dividing the world up from a Western European perspective Europeans 1st
world wealthier regions in which they were colonised such as North America and Australia 2nd
world poorer countries then 3rd world.( then became clear that insufficient number of divisions, as
variety between poor countries was increasing, so poorest countries, standing still or in economic
decline labelled 4th world )
North South divide
The Brandt report (1971) made division simpler by
contrasting economically wealthier and industrialised
countries with poorer less mature and largely agricultural
ones, using GNP. (This system has decreased in popularity
as economies are more varied and it's too simple)
Developing as a term was seen as a stigma replaced with
concept of the south after Brandt Report.
1985+ third word was widely used.
1990s MDCs and LDCs introduced (MDC- more
developed country and LDC less developed country)
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Not accepted because development is not only economic but social and cultural (many poor countries
have a rich culture and society) it was negative to suggest that culture was at a low level just because
a country was economically poor so terms changed to LEDC and MEDC.
Some LEDCs are growing more rapidly than developed countries ­ globalisation has meant there are
more contacts and trade between countries than ever before.…read more

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MEDC- cash economy not included.
Quality of life
"how good a person's life is measured by such things as quality of housing and environment ,
access to education, healthcare, how secure people feel and how content and satisfied with
their lifestyle they are "
As well as making people better off, development is also about improving people's quality of life. To
measure development just looking at a country's income would not give us the whole picture.…read more

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Some measures of development can give a confusing narrow picture e.g. GNP or GNI only
economic measures ­ no indication of living standards doesn't tell us how much people earn
and what that can buy or how educated people are or any indication of cultural quality of life.
All averages within a country ­within society extremes of wealth and opportunity will be present
This explains why a range must be used to give a clear unbiased accurate picture of a country.…read more

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Limited water supplies lower food production, which causes poverty. Agriculture is affected, and
this is a major industry in some countries.
Natural hazards force countries to spend huge amounts of money rebuilding, which reduces the
money available for development projects. It also reduces people's quality of life.
Few raw materials means the country has fewer products to sell, which means reduced income. This
means there will be less money available for development projects.…read more

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Increasing crime and spread of disease are concerns in the temporary
Development project in Bangladesh ­ see mind map sheet
Water quality
Vital resource
3% of Earth's water is fresh, with most being locked up in Glaciers leaving 10million cubic
kilometres of usable water.
It constantly circulates as precipitation refills rivers, lakes and underground stores.
Should be enough water for everyone but water is not equally distributed within and
between countries.…read more

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Water facts
o 884 million people in the world do not have access to safe water
o 2.6 billion people in the world do not have access to adequate sanitation
o 1.4 million children die every year due to diarrhoea caused by unclean water and poor
o In developing countries, 2.4 billion more people had access to an improved water supply in
the last 20 years and 600 million to sanitation.…read more

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Trade the buying and selling of products
Visible trade ­ trade in goods
Invisible trade ­ trade in services (tourism)
Trade between countries involves both exports and imports
Exports ­ goods sold to another country
Imports ­goods bought from another country
Trade Balance- difference between imports and exports
Trade is a major way for a country to improve its level of development which will enhance the quality
of life there. In order to do this a country must have a trade surplus.…read more

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Depends on primary products
Building up its industry and services through foreign investment and exports from its big
clothing industry can be found on every UK high street.
Important source of income comes from Bangladeshis living abroad who send money home
(remittances ) larger than the official aid to the country
IMPORTS (chemicals ,textiles and machinery) $17 billion EXPORTS (clothing , leather and
seafood) $12 billion ( trade deficit of $5billion)
Receives $1.…read more

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Markets protected by tariffs and
Disadvantage Trade severely affected at times Primary products low priced
s of economic recession. Export orientated products ­ do not
Recent moves towards fairer meet needs of population (profits go
trade have resulted in increased overseas (MNC)
competition from LEDCs and Dependant on 1 or 2 products
NICs Demand and prices fluctuate
Unable to trade freely and access
markets due to tariffs.
Total trade is small so debt burden.…read more


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