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Disparities (differences in development) within countries (core/periphery) e.g. India (Maharashtra
Location Coastal: easier to trade (ports) Landlocked: difficult to trade
GDP Richest in India: 166, 516 rupees Poorest in India: 31,656 rupees (20%
Urban population 42%: tertiary jobs 10.8%
Electricity access India's average is 75.8% 58.8%
Literacy rate 77.2% (high skilled workforce) 47.5% (low skilled workforce)
Resources Oil, coal, limestone, metal, transport Food production: mangoes, guavas,
equipment, textiles, chemicals. litchi, pineapple
Population Density 322 per sq km (less dense) 880 per sq km (more dense)
English Widely spoken Less English speaking
Poorest States About 3/100 of India's poorest 26 out of 100 or India's poorest states
Industries Banks, I.T (tertiary) Agriculture (primary)
Other Transport links: railway, roads 58% under 25yrs = fewer economically
Don't rely on one industry: variety of active + more young dependants
primary, secondary, tertiary and Less investment (TNCs) low % tertiary
even some quaternary. and secondary
Top down project e.g. Three Gorges Dam, China
Factor Positives Negative
Social Protects 10 million people from Flooding of 137 cities and towns,
flooding downstream. 4,000 hospitals, 1,100 villages.
1 million people have to move.
Economic Secondary employment in construction $25 billion
Tourist attraction If companies close unemployment will
Allows large ships up Yangtze river: go to 70%, damages the economy.
exports boosts the economy
Environmental HEP: reduces consumption of fossil Farmland will lose fertility
fuels and CO2 emissions. Visual pollution
Noise + air pollution in construction
Extinction of white alligator
Bottom-up project e.g. Biogas plants, rural India.
Factor Positives Negative
Social Used for cooking: healthier diet (meat) Only appropriate in rural areas due to
Less smoky households cleaner fuel the need for space and organic waste.
Don't' have to collect wood = extra Only appropriate on a small scale.
2hrs could be used to increase income
Economic Fertilisers increase crop yield. Creates fewer jobs compared to the
Low maintenance costs dam.
No fuel costs
Environmental Less visual pollution (underground) Smell pollution
Low carbon emissions (almost neutral) Produces some CO2 emissions
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Prevents use of chemical fertilisers. Methane is very flammable.
277 tonnes of CO2 saves
Development is the change (usually improvement) for people and the economy.
North and South divide
MEDCs: North America, Europe, Australasia
LEDCs: South America, Africa, Asia
HDI: Human Development Index: Life expectance, GNP, School Enrolment, Literacy Rate
Development = Disparities
Cycle of Poverty
Meeting the needs of people today without preventing future generation meeting their needs.
1. Involve locals in decision making