Development & Globalisation Aid Questions

Various questions for the Development and Globalisation questions regarding aid. 

Question 13: 5/7

Question 14: 8/8

Question 15: 6/10

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  • Created on: 19-04-15 11:35
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Development & Globalisation:
13) Study Figure 5 which shows two indicators of fertility for selected countries in 1994 and
Comment on the development issues that may be evident. (7 marks)
From Figure 5, one development issue that may be evident is the economic problems caused by
the high fertility rates in countries such as Niger and Uganda. The two countries have high total
fertility rates of 7.0 and 6.7 births per woman, possibly due to the lack of contraceptives because
of the poor healthcare system in the less economically developed countries. The economy in these
countries would suffer in the long term due to the large amount of young people needing
employment throughout the two countries, but it is also possible that both Niger and Uganda have
mostly become dependent populations. The dependency ratio may grow due to the high fertility
rates, especially for Niger who have sustained the percentage of females' ages 15-19 who have
given birth or became pregnant. For this reason, it could be assumed that Niger will suffer to
develop economically due to more women being out of work and therefore not improving the
economy. Therefore the country may require further aid, which in time may cause them to be in
further debt.
Another problem that may be evident from Figure 5 is Bangladesh, with a falling yet still high
percentage of females who are mothers or became pregnant before 18. Whilst there has been a
fall in both the total fertility rate and the percentage, it is possible that there is a tradition of
starting families at an early age across the countries. This may have consequences such as
male-orientated jobs, or there is lack of services that would previously have been provided by the
women in Bangladesh.
14) Outline the ways in which aid is given from one country to another. (8 marks)
Countries are able to give various types of aid to one another, with one source of aid being
bilateral aid. Bilateral aid is aid that is sent from the government of one country to another, and
tends to be the largest type of aid that a country may receive. Another source of aid is multilateral
aid, which is aid that is given by the government of a country to organisations who then assist
various programmes that may exist within a country. One of the most well-known international
organisations is the World Bank, who helped fund the Akosombo Dam in Ghana. The final source
of aid is non-governmental organisations, which are charities who raise money for different
campaigns. These are voluntary donations whereas bilateral aid is taken from the taxes of
habitants in a more economically developed country.
These sources of aid will distribute it in various ways, including bottom-up schemes. These type of
schemes tend to be funded by the non-governmental organisations such as Unicef, and they
involve the local people in a developing country and help them first. Using this type of aid ensures
that the money is not being spent inappropriately by the government, as countries such as
Afghanistan have corrupted systems yet still receiving approximately £180 million of aid from the
UK. Another way to distribute aid is the opposite of bottom-up schemes, which are top-down aid.
This is when the government of a country will receive the aid and choose how to spend their
money or goods, and tends to be on the larger-scale schemes and infrastructure. One example of
this is the Akosombo Dam as previously discussed. The money was given in order to produce
hydroelectric power and economically develop the country, but left the country in further debt as
transnational businesses such as Valco took advantage of the cheap electricity for 50 years.

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The aid can also vary dependent on the period of time it is received by the recipient country- if a
country has recently been affected by natural disasters such as tsunamis, then short term aid
would be received. One prime example of short-term aid is Haiti, as over three million people
were affected and required new infrastructure to recover.…read more


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