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Developing Fuels Revision Notes




Developing Fuels

All gases take up the same volume under the same conditions. AT room temperature and
room pressure this volume is 24 dm3.
in dm3
N umber of moles = volume 24
Balanced equations can also be used to work out gas volumes.
In the…

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Developing Fuels Revision Notes




Hess's Law states that the total enthalpy change of a reaction is always the same, no matter
what route is taken.




Enthalpy Changes can also be found out by using calorimetry. In calorimetry you find how
much heat is given out by a reaction by measuring…

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Developing Fuels Revision Notes




Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons. All carbon atoms in alkanes have four single bonds with
other atoms. It is impossible for carbon to make more than four bonds, so alkanes are
saturated.
Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons. Alkene molecules all have at lease on C=C double
covalent bond,…

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Developing Fuels Revision Notes




Molecular formula shows you the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule, with
any functional groups indicated.
Structural formula sows the atoms carbon by carbon, with the attached hydrogens and
functional groups.
Displayed formula shows how all the atoms are arranged, and all…

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Developing Fuels Revision Notes




Heavy fractions can be cracked to make smaller molecules. Cracking involves breaking
long-chain alkanes into smaller hydrocarbons (which can include alkenes). It involves breaking
the C-C bonds. There are two main types of cracking: thermal cracking and catalytic cracking.
Thermal cracking takes place at high temperature…

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Developing Fuels Revision Notes




It also produces sulphur dioxide which leads to acid rain. Acid rain is caused by burning fossil
fuels that contain sulphur. The sulphur burns to produce sulphur dioxide gas which then enters
the atmosphere, dissolves in the moisture, and is converted into sulphuric acid. Acid rain…

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