Détente - AQA Modern World History

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Exam :Wednesday June 9, 2010 [Détente]
Détente revision notes ­ made for AQA specification
NOTE: These are only my revision notes; they were made only for me and I
have decided to put them up if they will mean anything to you. If they are crap
then don't use them as everyone has a different way of learning. Hope they
help, but don't just rely on them if they aren't for you. Happy revising.
Notable people throughout:
US Presidents: - Franklin D. Roosevelt (March 1933 ­ April 1945)
- John F. Kennedy (January 1961 ­ November 1963)
- Richard Nixon (January 1969 ­ August 1974)
- Jimmy Carter (January 1977 ­ January 1981)
- Ronald Reagan (January 1981 ­ January 1981)
USSR Leaders: - Joseph Stalin (April 1922 ­ March 1953 (his death
ended his leadership))
- Nikita Khrushchev (September 1953 ­ October
1964)
- Leonid Brezhnev (October 1964 ­ November 1982)
- Mikhail Gorbachev (March 1990 ­ December 1991)
Chinese Leaders: - Mao Zedong (1943 ­ 1976)
Détente
o People thought that the Détente was a thaw in relations between the
East and the West, whereas it was really an extension of Khrushchev's
peace policy of co-existence.

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Exam :Wednesday June 9, 2010 [Détente]
Reasons for Détente
o Cuban Missile Crisis 1962
o Both sides had seen the damage that they
might have caused, so talks to improve
relations began in the early 1960s.
o However, fears and suspicions were still there,
both generally and over specific issues like
Vietnam
o Czechoslovakia
o Seemed to doom all hopes of better relations
o -USA and Soviets started to accept each other's
areas of influence throughout the world.…read more

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Exam :Wednesday June 9, 2010 [Détente]
o Contacts with China
o -Both the USA and USSR were worried about
China.…read more

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Exam :Wednesday June 9, 2010 [Détente]
How far was the Détente successful in the 1970s?
SALT 1 ­ 1972
o Strategic Arms Limitation Talks started in 1969 and led to the 1972 SALT
1 agreement.
o In SALT it was agreed that ICBMs and ABMs were to be limited in
number for 5 years.
o Each side was allowed to spy on the other side (with satellites) to ensure
that the agreements were not broken.…read more

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Exam :Wednesday June 9, 2010 [Détente]
o USA was also developing relations with China; USA agreed to let them
join the UN.
o US table tennis team visited China and played matches there, alongside
Nixon visiting Mao Zedong. This `ping pong diplomacy' was going well
and this also helped relieve some tension between the superpowers.
o USSR and China were still not getting on well, as they were still having
border conflicts and still suspicious of each other.…read more

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Exam :Wednesday June 9, 2010 [Détente]
The failings of the Détente in the later 1970s
o The Mid 1970s was the high-point of the Détente and the USA was
happy that the USSR and China were still quarrelling.
o However Communism still triumphed in Vietnam and support or
Communism was growing in parts of Africa.
o USA was becoming suspicious of the Soviets' dealing with human rights.
o They were also suspicious as to whether the Soviets were sticking to the
SALT 1 agreements.…read more

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Exam :Wednesday June 9, 2010 [Détente]
Prior to the Soviet involvement in Afghanistan
o Afghanistan was relatively poor and barren it held an important position
in the rich oil fields of the Middle East
o Since they became independent in 1921, they were open to influence,
the Soviets formed strong links with them and these were further
strengthened when Khrushchev visited Kabul in 1955 and promised
Afghanistan armaments.…read more

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Exam :Wednesday June 9, 2010 [Détente]
o In retaliation the Soviet government accused the USA and China of
interfering.
o To show his disapproval in what the Soviets had done Jimmy Carter
made a few important decisions.…read more

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Exam :Wednesday June 9, 2010 [Détente]
The war continues...
o After the first few months of fighting, the Soviets controlled their based
cities, but the Mujaheddin controlled the countryside. They were
fighting not only to regain their country as it was, but to overthrow it
and turn it into a Muslim nation. The Mujaheddin were well quipped as
the USA and China had both provided them with weapons.…read more

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